The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Phytomyza myosotica Nowakowski, 1959
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]


Phytomyza myosotica Nowakowski, 1959. Dt. ent. Z. (N.F.) 6: 213
Phytomyza myosotica Nowakowski, 1959; Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 86 (fig. 293), 90, 109
Phytomyza myosotica Nowakowski, 1959; Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the World Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 198, 199.


Leaf-mine: Mine initially linear, later developing into a whitish blotch. Pupation in mine on lower surface (Spencer, 1972b: 90).

Rather small upper-surface secondary blotch in the leaf apex, generally beginning with a short corridor that mostly is overrun by the later blotch. No feeding lines recognisable. The final part of the mine is a lower-surface corridor, mostly following a vein and containing no frass. At its end an exit slit is made; mostly the larva pupariates within the mine, just before the exit (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

Anterior spiracles of the larva each with 15-18 bulbs, posterior spiracles each with 15-19 bulbs (Nowakowsksi, 1959; Griffiths, 1975).

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Yellowish orange (Spencer, 1972b: 90).

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Boraginaceae        
Myosotis palustris Common Water Forget-Me-Not   Mines in BMNH
Myosotis palustris Common Water Forget-Me-Not   Spencer, 1972b: 109
Myosotis scorpioides Water Forget-me-not British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Pitkin & Plant
Myosotis sylvatica Wood Forget-me-not British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 109

Hosts elsewhere:

Boraginaceae        
Myosotis       Spencer, 1990: 199
Myosotis       Mines in BMNH
Myosotis alpestris Alpine Forget-me-not British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Myosotis aquatica     Mines in BMNH
Myosotis arvensis Field Forget-me-not British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Myosotis decumbens     Bladmineerders van Europa
Myosotis hybrida     Bladmineerders van Europa
Myosotis palustris Common Water Forget-Me-Not   Bladmineerders van Europa
Myosotis sylvatica Wood Forget-me-not British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Omphalodes       Spencer, 1990: 198

Time of year - mines: August (Bladmineerders van Europa); Robbins (1991) mentions a summer and an autumn generation.

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread but local. Surrey (Bookham), Oxford (Oxford) and Huntingdonshire (Woodwalton Fen) (Spencer, 1972b: 90); Glamorgan (NBN Atlas).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Norway (Mines in BMNH), Germany, Poland (Spencer, 1990: 198), Czech Republic and Lithuania (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Myosotis alpestris, Myosotis arvensis, Myosotis palustris, Myosotis scorpioides, Myosotis sylvatica

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea   
Chrysocharis idyia (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis viridis (Nees, 1934) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis pubicornis (Zetterstedt, 1838) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Ichneumonoidea  
Chorebus nanus (Nixon, 1943) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dacnusa maculipes Thomson, 1895 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Grammospila rufiventris (Nees, 1812) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Apodesmia similis (Sz├ępligeti, 1898) Braconidae: Opiinae
Cremnodes atricapillus (Gravenhorst, 1815) Ichneumonidae: Cryptinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
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