The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Phytomyza origani Hering, 1931
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]


Phytomyza origani Hering, 1931b. Z. PflKrankh. 41: 549
Phytomyza origani Hering, 1931b; Nowakowski, 1959. Dt. ent. Z. [2] 6: 197
Phytomyza origani Hering, 1931b; Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 86
Phytomyza origani Hering, 1931b; Spencer, 1976. Fauna ent. Scand. 5(1): 464, figs 812-3.Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g)
Phytomyza origani Hering, 1931b; Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the World Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 205, 209.


Leaf-mine: Mine beginning with small spiral, followed by a linear section to the margin of the leaf where a dark blotch is formed. Pupation internal (Spencer, 1972b: 86 (fig. 292), 90; Spencer, 1976: 464, 465 (fig. 813)).

Essentially a corridor mine. It begins as a tiny upper-surface spiral. The corridor at this point is so narrow and closely wound that it rather resembles a simple spot. Next follows a simple corridor running towards the leaf tip, often following the leaf margin for some distance. In the leaf apex a quite long corridor is made, while the mine is laid in loops that are so close that a secondary blotch results, with prominent secondary feeding lines. The final section of the mine again is a simple corridor, in the end of which pupation takes place. Before pupating the larva already has made a semicircular slit in the epidermis. Not infrequently the puparium falls out (Hering, 1957) - see Bladmineerders van Europa.

The initial mine is a small spiral. The mine then follows the edge of the leaf and a dark blotch is formed. Pupation is within the mine (British leafminers).

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

The larva is described Nowakowski (1959).

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Yellowish; posterior spiracles each with 13-17 bulbs (Spencer, 1976: 464).

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Lamiaceae        
Origanum       Robbins, 1991: 100
Origanum vulgare Wild Marjoram British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Origanum vulgare Wild Marjoram British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 117
Origanum vulgare Wild Marjoram British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bland, 1994c: 83
Origanum vulgare Wild Marjoram British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers

Hosts elsewhere:

Lamiaceae        
Origanum vulgare Wild Marjoram British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1976: 464
Origanum vulgare Wild Marjoram British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1990: 205
Origanum vulgare Wild Marjoram British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - mines: June-July, October.

Time of year - adults: October and spring the following year.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread at least in south. Kent (Otford), Surrey (Box Hill), Somerset (Cheddar), Derby (Miller's Dale) (Spencer, 1972b: 90), East Perth (Kinnoull Hill), Fife (Aberdour - vacated mines) (Bland, 1994c: 83); North Somerset (NBN Atlas).

Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Denmark (Spencer, 1976: 464), The Netherlands, Germany (Bladmineerders van Europa), Belgium, Estonia, ? French mainland, Hungary, Italian mainland, Lithuania, Madeira, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Spanish mainland and Sweden (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Origanum vulgare

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea   
Chrysocharis orbicularis (Nees, 1834) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis pubicornis (Zetterstedt, 1838) Eulophidae: Entedoninae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
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Last updated 05-Oct-2017 Brian Pitkin Top of page