The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds


Phytomyza scotina Hendel, 1920
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]

Phytomyza scotina Hendel, 1920

Leaf-miner: A winding corridor, upper- or lower surface, that regularly crosses itself, though without forming a secondary blotch. Secondary feeding lines absent. The mine is quite variable, sometimes a compact knot, sometimes a loose corridor along the leaf margin. Frass in discrete grains or pearl chains (Bladmineerders van Europa).

The mine starts as a narrow gallery, which then often follows the leaf margin. It is just as often compressed into a small place. The mines may be upper or lower surface although these in York were found to be upper surface. The frass is in grains which may be close together and so looking like pearl strings. There are no primary or secondary feeding lines which distinguish it from Phytomyza salviae (British Leafminers).

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Hosts in Great Britain and Ireland:

Salvia nemorosa 'May Night'     British Leafminers

Hosts elsewhere:

Salvia glutinosa     Bladmineerders van Europa
Salvia nemorosa     Bladmineerders van Europa
Salvia officinalis     Bladmineerders van Europa
Salvia pratensis     Bladmineerders van Europa
Salvia splendens     Bladmineerders van Europa
Salvia verticillata     Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - mines: May-June (British Leafminers).

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Distribution in Great Britain and Ireland: Yorkshire Museum Gardens, York, North Yorkshire (British Leafminers).

Distribution elsewhere: Central Europe; also Romania, Albania and Spain (Fauna Europaea, 2008). (Bladmineerders van Europa).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:


British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: Unknown

External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
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