The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Phytomyza sphondyliivora Spencer, 1957
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]


Phytomyza sphondyliivora Spencer, 1957a. Entomologist's Gaz. 8: 23
Phytomyza sphondyliivora Spencer, 1957a; Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 7, 78 (fig. 260), 81, 121
Phytomyza sphondyliivora Spencer, 1957a; Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the World Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 160, 175, 176 (fig. 658), 178.


Leaf-mine: Mine inter-parenchymal, greenish-yellow, not always readily visible, an irregular linear-blotch (Spencer, 1972b: 78 (fig. 260)).

Broad, irregular interparenchymatous corridor, here and there widening into a blotch; fairly inconspicuous. Frass grains few, irregularly scattered. Pupation outside the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).

The leaf discolours as the larva mines through the parenchyma of the leaf. The mine is inter-parenchymal, greenish-yellow, not always readily visible, an irregular linear-blotch (British leafminers).

Mine of Phytomyza sphondyliivora on Heracleum. Image: Rob Edmunds (British leafminers)
Mine of Phytomyza sphondyliivora on Heracleum
Image: © Rob Edmunds (British leafminers)

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

The larva is described Hering (1955a: 280, as Ph. sp).

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Apiaceae        
Heracleum       Robbins, 1991: 67
Heracleum sphondylium Hogweed British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Heracleum sphondylium Hogweed British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 121

Hosts elsewhere:

Apiaceae        
Heracleum       Spencer, 1990: 160
Heracleum sphondylium Hogweed British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - mines: Summer (British leafminers).

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread in England - London (Hampstead), Dorset (Studland), Wiltshire (Corsham), Somerset (Cheddar), Huntingdonshire (Monk's Wood) (Spencer, 1972b: 81) and Warwickshire (Keresley) (Robbins, 1991: 67); Anglesey, East Sutherland, Fife, Glamorgan, North Somerset and South Lancaster, (NBN Atlas)

Distribution elsewhere: Europe (Spencer, 1990: 178) including ? Austria, French mainland, ? Germany and Poland (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Heracleum sphondylium

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea   
Stictomischus groschkei Delucchi, 1953 Pteromalidae: Miscogastrinae
Ichneumonoidea  
Exotela cyclogaster Förster, 1862 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Opius ambiguus Wesmael, 1835 Braconidae: Opiinae
Phaedrotoma reptantis (Fischer, 1957) Braconidae: Opiinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
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