The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

N.B. Links to the latest version of 'Leafminers and plant galls of Europe' are being edited

Join us on Facebook

Phytomyza tetrasticha Hendel, 1927
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]


Phytomyza tetrasticha Hendel, 1927a. Zool. Anz. 69: 266
Phytomyza tetrasticha Hendel, 1927a; Nowakowski, 1959. Dt. ent. Z. [2] 6: 198
Phytomyza tetrasticha Hendel, 1927a; Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 89 (figs 295-6), 90, 116, 117
Phytomyza tetrasticha Hendel, 1927a; Spencer, 1976. Fauna ent. Scand. 5(1): 514-5, figs 899-900
Phytomyza tetrasticha Hendel, 1927a; Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the World Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 205, 207.


Leaf-mine: Mine beginning with a small spiral, later developing into a greenish blotch, frequently at leaf margin, brown when old. Pupation internal or external (Spencer, 1972b: 89 (figs 296), 90).

Upper surface. The mine begins as a short, compact brown spiral, followed by a secondary blotch, often at the leaf margin. Often spiral and blotch are separated by a recognisable corridor segment. Secondary feeding lines conspicuous (in fresh mines). Pupation outside the mine; sometimes pupation occurs earlier but then the exit slit already has been made, and the spiracula do not penetrate the plant epidermis (Bladmineerders van Europa).

The mine starts with a small spiral and then develops into a greenish blotch (frequently on the leaf margin) which turns brown as it ages (British Leafminers).

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

Posterior spiracles each with 23-25 bulbs (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Yellowish-brown in summer generation, deep black in winter generation; posterior spiracles on conspicuous conical projections each with a double ellipse of 23-25 bulbs (Spencer, 1972b: 90).

It may pupate either in or outside the mine. The puparium is yellow-brown in the summer generation and deep black in the winter one (British Leafminers).

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Lamiaceae        
Mentha       Robbins, 1991: 100
Mentha       Bland, 1994c: 84
Mentha aquatica Water Mint British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Mentha aquatica Water Mint British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 116
Mentha aquatica Water Mint British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British Leafminers
Mentha longifolia Horse Mint   Spencer, 1972b; 116
Mentha longifolia Horse Mint   British Leafminers
Mentha suaveolens Round-leaved Mint British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Mentha suaveolens Round-leaved Mint British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 117
Mentha suaveolens Round-leaved Mint   British Leafminers

Hosts elsewhere:

Lamiaceae        
Mentha       Spencer, 1990: 207
Mentha aquatica Water Mint British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Mentha aquatica Water Mint British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1976: 514
Mentha arvensis Corn Mint British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Mentha arvensis Corn Mint British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1976: 514
Mentha longifolia Horse Mint   Bladmineerders van Europa
Mentha piperita     Bladmineerders van Europa
Mentha rotundifolia False Apple-mint   Bladmineerders van Europa
Mentha rotundifolia False Apple-mint   Spencer, 1976: 514

Time of year - mines: May to August in two generations (Hering, 1957).

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread. London (Hampstead), Isle Of Wight (Niton), Huntingdonshire (Woodwalton Fen), Norfolk (Norwich), Denbighshire (Cefn-y-bedd) (Spencer, 1972b: 80), Midlothian (Duddingstone Loch) (Bland, 1994c: 84), Warwickshire (Brandon Marsh) (Robbins, 1991: 100); Glamorgan and Huntingdonshire (NBN Atlas).

Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland: Dublin (Spencer, 1972b: 90).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Belgium (Scheirs, de Bruyn and von Tschirnhaus, 1995), Denmark, Sweden (Spencer, 1976: 514), Germany (Spencer, 1976: 578), Azores, Bulgaria, Canary Is., Corsica, Czech Republic, European Turkey, French mainland, Italian mainland, Lithuania, Poland and Spanish mainland (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Mentha aquatica, Mentha arvensis, Mentha longifolia, Mentha rotundifolia

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea   
Chrysocharis viridis (Nees, 1934) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Ichneumonoidea  
Chorebus abaris (Nixon, 1943) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Chorebus nanus (Nixon, 1943) Braconidae: Alysiinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British Leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
Find using Google
Find using Google Scholar
Find images using Google


XHTML Validator
Last updated 28-Apr-2017 Brian Pitkin Top of page