tetrasticha Hendel, 1927
Hendel, 1927a. Zool. Anz. 69: 266
Phytomyza tetrasticha Hendel, 1927a; Nowakowski, 1959.
Dt. ent. Z.  6: 198
Phytomyza tetrasticha Hendel, 1927a; Spencer, 1972b. Handbk
ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 89 (figs 295-6), 90, 116, 117
Phytomyza tetrasticha Hendel, 1927a; Spencer, 1976. Fauna ent. Scand. 5(1): 514-5, figs 899-900
Phytomyza tetrasticha Hendel, 1927a; Spencer, 1990. Host
specialization in the World Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 205, 207.
beginning with a small spiral, later developing into a greenish
blotch, frequently at leaf margin, brown when old. Pupation internal
or external (Spencer, 1972b:
89 (figs 296), 90).
surface. The mine begins as a short, compact brown spiral, followed
by a secondary blotch, often at the leaf margin. Often spiral and
blotch are separated by a recognisable corridor segment. Secondary
feeding lines conspicuous (in fresh mines). Pupation outside the
mine; sometimes pupation occurs earlier but then the exit slit already
has been made, and the spiracula do not penetrate the plant epidermis
(Bladmineerders van Europa).
The mine starts with a small spiral and then develops into a greenish blotch (frequently on the leaf margin) which turns brown as it ages (British Leafminers).
Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.
Posterior spiracles each with 23-25 bulbs (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).
Yellowish-brown in summer generation, deep black in winter generation;
posterior spiracles on conspicuous conical projections each with
a double ellipse of 23-25 bulbs (Spencer, 1972b: 90).
It may pupate either in or outside the mine. The puparium is yellow-brown in the summer generation and deep black in the winter one (British Leafminers).
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - mines:
May to August in two generations (Hering,
of year - adults: Currently unknown.
in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread. London (Hampstead),
Isle Of Wight (Niton), Huntingdonshire (Woodwalton Fen), Norfolk
(Norwich), Denbighshire (Cefn-y-bedd) (Spencer, 1972b: 80), Midlothian (Duddingstone Loch) (Bland,
1994c: 84), Warwickshire (Brandon Marsh) (Robbins,
1991: 100); Glamorganshire (VC41) and Huntingdonshire (NBN
recorded in the Republic of Ireland: Dublin (Spencer, 1972b: 90).
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Belgium
Bruyn and von Tschirnhaus, 1995), Denmark, Sweden (Spencer,
1976: 514), Germany (Spencer,
1976: 578), Azores, Bulgaria, Canary Is., Corsica, Czech Republic,
European Turkey, French mainland, Italian mainland, Lithuania, Poland
and Spanish mainland (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).
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British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: