The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

Join us on Facebook

Phytomyza tussilaginis Hendel, 1925
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]


Phytomyza tussilaginis Hendel, 1925. Konowia 4: 308
Phytomyza tussilaginis Hendel, 1925; Hendel, 1935. Fliegen palaearkt. Reg. 6(2): 493
Phytomyza tussilaginis Hendel, 1925; Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 81, 83 (figs 264-5), 114, 115
Phytomyza tussilaginis Hendel, 1925; Spencer, 1976. Fauna ent. Scand. 5(1): 522, figs 914-5.
Phytomyza tussilaginis Hendel, 1925; Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the World Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 293, 296 (fig. 1142), 298.


Leaf-mine: A long linear greenish-white mine which can conspicuously widen at end, with frass in separate grains (Spencer, 1972b: 81, 83 (figs 264-5); Spencer, 1976: 522, 523 (fig. 915).

Upper-surface, quite long corridor with irregular sides, in the end about 4 mm wide. Frass in discrete grains, alternating along the sides. Pupation outside the mine; exit slit in upper epidermis (Bladmineerders van Europa).

A long narrow mine, widening at the end and often forming a secondary blotch (British leafminers).

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

The larva is described by Griffiths (1972) and Dempewolf (2001: 198); posterior spiracles each with 25-31 bulbs. The larva is illustrated in (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

The puparium is described by Griffiths (1972). Black; posterior spiracles each with an ellipse of 25-30 minute bulbs (Spencer, 1976: 522).

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Asteraceae        
Petasites       Mines in BMNH
Petasites       Robbins, 1991: 110
Petasites fragans Winter Aconite British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Pitkin & Plant
Petasites fragans Winter Aconite British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Petasites hybridus Butterbur British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Petasites hybridus Butterbur British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 114
Petasites hybridus Butterbur British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Tussilago       Robbins, 1991: 110
Tussilago farfara Colt's-foot British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 115
Tussilago farfara Colt's-foot British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers

Hosts elsewhere:

Asteraceae        
Adenostyles       Hering, 1957a
Adenostyles alliariae     Huber, 1969a
Adenostyles alliariae     Macek, 1999a
Adenostyles glabra     Huber, 1969a
Adenostyles glabra     Macek, 1999a

Petasites

      Spencer, 1976: 522
Petasites       Spencer, 1990: 293
Petasites albus White Butterbur British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Petasites frigidus     Spencer, 1976: 522
Petasites frigidus     Bladmineerders van Europa
Petasites hybridus Butterbur British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1976: 522
Petasites hybridus Butterbur British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Petasites paradoxus     Bladmineerders van Europa
Tussilago       Spencer, 1990: 293
Tussilago farfara Colt's-foot British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1976: 522
Tussilago farfara Colt's-foot British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Dempewolf, 2001: 198
Tussilago farfara Colt's-foot British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - mines: June-August.

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread. Surrey (Box Hill), Derby (Miller's Dale), Denbighshire (Cefn-y-bedd) (Spencer, 1972b: 81), Warwickshire (Hawkesbury) (Robbins, 1991: 110); Buckinghamshire, East Gloucestershire, Easterness, Glamorgan, Hertfordshire, Main Argyll, North Ebudes, North Essex, Shropshire, South Lancaster, South-west Yokshire, Stafford and Surrey (NBN Atlas).

Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland: Co. Tipperary (Tipperary) (Spencer, 1972b: 81).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Denmark, Finland, Sweden, [former] U.S.S.R. (Spencer, 1976: 522), The Netherlands (Bladmineerders van Europa), Germany (Spencer, 1976: 522; Dempewolf, 2001: 198), Austria, Czech Republic, French mainland, Italian mainland, Poland and Romania (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

Also recorded in Alaska and Canada (Spencer, 1976: 522).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Petasites albus, Petasites fragrans, Petasites hybridus, Tussilago farfara

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea   
Chrysocharis pentheus (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis viridis (Nees, 1934) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Ichneumonoidea  
Apodesmia posticatae (Fischer, 1957) Braconidae: Opiinae
Apodesmia similis (Sz├ępligeti, 1898) Braconidae: Opiinae
Phaedrotoma rex (Fischer, 1958) Braconidae: Opiinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
Find using Google
Find using Google Scholar
Find images using Google


XHTML Validator
Last updated 09-Nov-2017 Brian Pitkin Top of page