The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Phytomyza vitalbae Kaltenbach, 1872
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]


Phytomyza vitalbae Kaltenbach, 1872. Pflanzen-Feinde : 4
Phytomyza vitalbae Kaltenbach, 1872; Hendel, 1935. Fliegen palaearkt. Reg. 6(2): 498
Phytomyza vitalbae Kaltenbach, 1872; Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 70 (fig. 227), 73, 118
Phytomyza vitalbae Kaltenbach, 1872; Spencer, 1976. Fauna ent. Scand. 5(1): 525, figs 919-20.
Phytomyza vitalbae Kaltenbach, 1872; Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the World Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 21, 32, 33, 190.


Leaf-mine: A long narrow upper surface mine. Pupation external (Spencer, 1972b: 70 (fig. 227), 73; Spencer, 1976: 525, 526 (fig. 920)).

Oviposition in the leaf lower surface. After a short initial corridor of a few mm length the larva makes an upper-surface corridor that mostly begins with a dense knot in the leaf tip. Frass in long pearl chains along the sides. In fresh material primary feeding lines are apparent. Pupation outside the mine; exit slit in the lower epidermis. The mine often causes the leaf to be malformed and wrinkled. Feeding punctures in the lower surface (Bladmineerders van Europa).

The larva forms a long narrow upper surface mine. Most mines start close to the leaf tip. The larva exits through a slit. Pupation is external (British leafminers).

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

The larva is described by de Meijere (1926). The larva is illustrated in (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Pale brown; posterior spiracles each with an ellipse of 10 bulbs (Spencer, 1976: 525). The puparium is illustrated in (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Phytomyza vitalbae puparium
Phytomyza vitalbae puparium
Image: © Willem Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa)

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Ranunculaceae        
Clematis       Robbins, 1991: 26
Clematis       British leafminers
Clematis vitalba Traveller's-joy British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Clematis vitalba Traveller's-joy British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Clematis vitalba Traveller's-joy British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 118

Hosts elsewhere:

Ranunculaceae        
Clematis       Spencer, 1976: 525
Clematis       Spencer, 1990: 33
Clematis alpina     Spencer, 1976: 525
Clematis alpina     Bladmineerders van Europa
Clematis flammula Virgin's-bower   Bladmineerders van Europa
Clematis heracleifolia     Bladmineerders van Europa
Clematis pubescens     Spencer, 1990: 33
Clematis recta     Bladmineerders van Europa
Clematis vitalba Traveller's-joy British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1976: 525
Clematis vitalba Traveller's-joy British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - mines: June-September.

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread in S.E. England, also in S. Wales, Glamorgan (Gower peninsula) (Spencer, 1972b: 73), Hampshire (Noar Hill, Selbourne), Hertfordshire (British leafminers), Warwickshire (Coventry) (Robbins, 1991: 26); Caernarvonshire, Cambridgeshire, Glamorgan, Leicestershire, Merionethshire, North Essex, North SOmerset, Shropshire, SOuth-west Yorkshire, West Gloucestershire and West Kent (NBN Atlas).

Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland: Co. Cork (Glengariff), Dublin (Spencer, 1972b: 73). See NDBC interactive map.

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Belgium (de Bruyn and von Tschirnhaus, 1991), Denmark, Sweden (Spencer, 1976: 525), The Netherlands (Bladmineerders van Europa), Germany (Spencer, 1976: 582), Corsica, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, French mainland, Hungary, Italian mainland, Poland, Romania, Spanish mainland, Switzerland and Yugoslavia (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

Also recorded in W. Australia (Spencer, 1990: 33).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Clematis flammula, Clematis vitalba

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea   
Chrysocharis pubicornis (Zetterstedt, 1838) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis viridis (Nees, 1934) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Diglyphus isaea (Walker, 1838) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Diglyphus minoeus (Walker, 1838) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Ichneumonoidea  
Dacnusa laevipectus Thomson, 1895 Braconidae: Alysiinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
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Find images using Google


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