The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds


BETONICA. [Lamiaceae]

Stachys officinalis is treated as Betonica officinalis by Stace (2010).

Only one British miner is recorded on Betonica.

A key to the European miners recorded on Stachys including Betonica is provided in Bladmineerders van Europa.

Betony - Stachys officinalis. Image: © Brian Pitkin
Stachys officinalis

Key for the identification of the known mines of British
insects (Diptera and non-Diptera) recorded on Betonica

1 > Leaf-miner: An initially linear mine, which at second instar develops into a large whitish blotch with conspicuous black frass. The early linear mine is frequently entirely enveloped by the blotch but is detectable by the alternate irregular strips of frass. Pupation external. Puparium reddish brown.

On Ajuga, Ballota, Lamium, Marrubium and Stachys, but not yet on Betonica, in Britain and additional Lamiaceae elsewhere. In southern England and continental Europe.

Amauromyza morionella (Zetterstedt, 1848) [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

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