The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

N.B. Links to the latest version of 'Leafminers and plant galls of Europe' are being edited

Join us on Facebook

Amauromyza morionella (Zetterstedt, 1848)
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]

Agromyza morionella Zetterstedt, 1848. Dipt. Scand. 7: 2783
Agromyza novaki Strobl, 1902. Glasnik zemaljski Musej u Bosni u. Hercegovini. 14: 505. [Synonymised by Spencer, 1966c: 296]
Amauromyza morionella (Zetterstedt, 1848); Spencer, 1966c. Beitr. Ent. 16: 296
Amauromyza morionella (Zetterstedt, 1848); Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 45
Amauromyza (Amauromyza) morionella (Zetterstedt, 1848); Spencer, 1976. Fauna ent. Scand. 5(1): 158, fig. 284.
Amauromyza morionella (Zetterstedt, 1848); Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the world Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 205, 206 (fig. 764).


Leaf-mine: An initially linear mine, which at second instar develops into a large whitish blotch with conspicuous black frass. The early linear mine is frequently entirely enveloped by the blotch but is detectable by the alternate irregular strips of frass. Pupation external (Spencer, 1976: 158).

The first part of the mine consists of a long, slender upper-surface corridor. After the first moult this changes into a large primary blotch without feeding lines. Frass in the corridor in short, somewhat angular thread fragments, towards the end even in grains. Frass arranged less closely along the sides than in A. lamii. Pupation outside the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).

The frass is conspicuous in the mine and the mine is initially linear, then develops into a white blotch, often enveloping this early mine (British leafminers).

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

The larva is described by de Meijere (1934) and illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Reddish-brown, deeply segmented; posterior spiracles on short conical projections, each with 3 bulbs (Spencer, 1976: 158).

Comments: Stachys officinalis is treated as Betonica officinalis (Betony) by Stace (2010).

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Lamiaceae        
Ajuga       Pitkin & Plant
Ajuga reptans Bugle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1991: 104
Ballota       Robbins, 1991: 101
Ballota nigra Black Horehound British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 116
Ballota nigra Black Horehound British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Glechoma hederacea Ground-ivy British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1991:
Lamium       British leafminers
Marrubium vulgare White Horehound British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Marrubium vulgare White Horehound British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Marrubium vulgare White Horehound British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 116
Stachys       British leafminers
Stachys       Robbins, 1991: 101

Hosts elsewhere:

Lamiaceae        
Ajuga reptans Bugle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Ballota       Spencer, 1990: 205
Ballota hirsuta     Bladmineerders van Europa
Ballota nigra Black Horehound British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Ballota nigra Black Horehound British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1976: 158
Galeopsis       Bladmineerders van Europa
Glechoma hederacea Ground-ivy British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Lamiastrum galeobdolon Yellow Archangel British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Lamium       Spencer, 1976: 158
Lamium maculatum Spotted Dead-nettle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Marrubium       Spencer, 1990: 205
Marrubium incanum     Bladmineerders van Europa
Marrubium peregrinum     Bladmineerders van Europa
Marrubium vulgare White Horehound British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1976: 158
Marrubium vulgare White Horehound British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Phlomis lychnitis     Bladmineerders van Europa
Phlomis purpurea     Bladmineerders van Europa
Scutellaria       Bladmineerders van Europa
Stachys       Spencer, 1976: 158
Stachys officinalis Betony British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Stachys sylvatica Hedge Woundwort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - mines: August.

Time of year - adults: May-August.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Recorded in Kent (Dartford), Surrey (Kew), Isle Of Wight (Spencer, 1972b: 45) and Warwickshire (Coombe and Kingsbury Wood) (Robbins, 1991: 101, as lamii); Glamorgan and South Lancaster (NBN Atlas).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe, including Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden, the Mediterranean area (Spencer, 1976: 158), The Netherlands (Bladmineerders van Europa), Corsica, Estonia, French mainland, Germany, Hungary, Italian mainland, Poland, Romania, Sardinia, Sicily, Spanish mainland and Yugoslavia (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Ajuga reptans, Ballota nigra, Glechoma hederacea, Lamiastrum galeobdolon, Lamium maculatum, Marrubium peregrinum, Marrubium vulgare, Stachys officinalis (= Betonica officinalis), Stachys sylvatica

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea   
Chrysocharis amyite (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis pubicornis (Zetterstedt, 1838) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Pnigalio soemius (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Trichomalus rugosus Delucchi and Graham, 1956 Pteromalidae: Pteromalinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
Find using Google
Find using Google Scholar
Find images using Google


XHTML Validator Last updated 28-Aug-2017 Brian Pitkin Top of page