The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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POLYGONATUM. Solomon's-seals. [Asparagaceae]


Four species of Polygonatum are recorded in Britain. These include the native Solomon's-seal (P. multiflorum), Garden Solomon's-seal (P. x hydridum) Angular Solomon's-seal (P. odoratum) and Whorled Solomon's-seal (P. verticillatum).

Whorled Solomon's-seal (P. verticillatum) is protected under Schedule 8 of the Wildlife and Countryside Act, 1981.

Only one British miner is recorded on Polygonatum.

Garden Solomon's-seal - Polygonatum x hybridum. Image: © Brian Pitkin
Garden Solomon's-seal
Polygonatum x hybridum


Key for the identification of the known mines of British
insects (Diptera and non-Diptera) recorded on Polygonatum


1 > Leaf-miner: Large blotch with a group of some larvae. At the start of the mine a group of elliptic egg shells.

Forms large blotch mines (as shown). The larval development is rapid (taking only 13 days). The pupariuml stage then lasts for around 348 days, with adults emerging in May and June (British leafminers).

Mine of Americina vittata on Paris quadrifolia. Mine of Americina vittata on Paris quadrifolia
Mine of Paralleloma paridis on Paris quadrifolia
Image: © Brian Pitkin

On Paris and Polygonatum in Britain. On Convallaria, Maianthemum, Paris, Plantathera and Polygonatum eslewhere. Widespread in Britain and continental Europe. Also recorded from the Nearctic region

Parallelomma paridis (Hering, 1923) [Diptera: Scathophagidae].



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