whitish (in the end often reddish brown) gallery of several decimeters
in length, descending from the leaf tip to within the sheath of
the leaf. Frass dispersed. Pupation external (Bladmineerders van Europa). The mine is downwards, towards the stem, and difficult to see. It is initially a pale green and later turns brown. When the larvae reach the water-line, they may then mine upwards or swap leaves (and then mine upwards). The frass is scattered in the mine (which distinguishes it from S.forficella, which has frass in a central strip). Found in the borders of steams, ponds etc. (British
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
The larva is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The pupa is in a slight cocoon, on an unmined leaf, about 60cms above the weater line. See Bland (1996a), Patocka (1999a), Patocka and Turcáni
(2005a) (Bladmineerders van Europa).
pupa is illustrated in the Encyclopedia of Life.
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths. The adult is illustrated in the Encyclopedia
of Life. The male genitalia, but not the female genitalia (check for update), are illustrated by the Lepidoptera
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae:
April-May and July-August (Bladmineerders van Europa).
of year - adults: Currently unknown.
in Great Britain & Ireland: Britain including Caernarvonshire (VC49),
Denbighshire (VC50), East Gloucestershire (VC33), Glamorganshire (VC41), Merionethshire (VC48), Monmouthshire (VC35),
North Essex (VC19), North Hampshire (VC12), North Somerset (VC6), North Wiltshire (VC7), Shropshire (VC40),
South Somerset (VC5), South Wiltshire (VC8), Staffordshire (VC39), West Norfolk (VC28), West Suffolk (VC26) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
Gateway). See also British
leafminers distribution map.
recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea). See also Ireland's NBDC interactive map.
NBN Grid Map:
elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belgium, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Finland, Germany, Hungary,
Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Sweden and The Netherlands
(Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: