The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

Join us on Facebook

CHANGES - 2012
 
2017 : 2016 : 2015 : 2014 : 2013: 2012 : 2011 : 2010 : 2009 : 2008 : 2007
 

4th June 2012 - Images added

I am grateful to Trevor & Dilys Pendleton for permission to use images of Caloptilia robustella (mine and adult) from their website.

If you have images of mines, larvae or pupae/puparia or adults which are not ilustrated on this website please send them to Brian Pitkin.

27th May 2012 - Google Analytics installed

Google analytics has been installed to track usage of the website.

21st May 2012 - Keys updated to include Cricotopus tunnelers

Keys to Glyceria, Nuphar, Nymphoides, Potamogeton and Polygonum were updated to include Cricotopus spp. mine-like tunnels, which are open at both ends.

15th May 2012 - Species added and updated

Coleophora lixella and Yponomeuta padella were added and the relevant keys updated.

3rd May 2012 - Further keys to Diptera combined with keys to other orders

Additional 'Keys for the identification of the mines of British Diptera' have been combined with 'Keys to the mines of other British non-Diptera' to become 'Keys to for the identification of British insects'.

There are now 484 keys of which 119 host plant genera include separate 'Keys for the identification of the mines of British Diptera' and 'Keys for the identification of British non-Diptera'.

No keys for the identification of the mines are included for the remaining host plant genera, as although they may include miners elsewhere, they either do not occur in Britain, they are treated elsewhere under a different name or no miners are recorded on them in Britain.

27th April 2012 - New drop down menus and changes to code

Previously written using Hypertext Markup Language - HTML 4.0 - this website has been updated to Extensible Hypertext Markup Language - XHTML 1.0 - which is HTML 4.01 rewritten in Extensible Markup Language (XML) using Dreamweaver CS5.

The code for XHTML and XML is all in lower case (rather than a mixture of upper and lower case which existed from the launch of this website on 1 July, 1997), which has some advantages when globally editing.

XHTML Validator

The WC3 HTML 4.0 icons and links on all XHTML pages have been changed to XHTML 1.0 icons with links to validate the code. All pages have been validated.

The previously used text menu has been replaced on XHTML pages with a more modern, and hopefully more professional, looking drop-down menu created using a free download from CSS3.

In addition all of the XHTML files which include a header and menu have been renamed from *.html to *.php - Hypertext Preprocessor (PHP) which enables the use of Server Side Includes (SSIs), rather than using iframes as previously. The header and new drop-down menu, now need only be edited once to display on every page of the website.

Sorry, this change to PHP does mean that if you have bookmarked a specific page within the website then you will need to edit the bookmark - changing the suffix from html to php.

17th March 2012 - Keys to Diptera combined with keys to other orders

Keys for the identification of the mines of British Diptera have been combined with keys to the mines of other British insect orders to become Keys to for the identification of British insects for 156 of the 879 host plant genera discussed.

In additon to these combined keys, there are now 232 Keys for the identification of the mines of British Diptera and 269 Keys for the identification of other orders. Some host plant genera keys still include both keys to the mines Diptera and keys to the mines of other orders.

2nd February 2012 - HTML 4.01 Markup Validated

The Hypertext Markup Language - HTML 4.01 - used on all pages on this website was checked using the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) Markup Validation Service. This website should now display correctly on all major web browsers

Valid HTML 4.01 Transitional

W3C icons have been added at the foot of every page which when clicked validate the code.

 

The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is an international community where Member organizations, a full-time staff, and the public work together to develop Web standards. Led by Web inventor Tim Berners-Lee and CEO Jeffrey Jaffe, W3C's mission is to lead the Web to its full potential. Contact W3C for more information.

13th January 2012 - Morphology added

Morphology has been added to the main menu with links to pages of example images of the larva and pupa/puparia of all Orders (except Hymenoptera pupae).

13th January 2012 - Key notes updated.

The Key notes were updated to read:

Note: Diptera larvae may live in a corridor mine, a corridor-blotch mine, or a blotch mine, but never in a case, a rolled or folded leaf, a tentiform mine or sandwiched between two more or less circular leaf sections in later instars. Pupation never in a cocoon. All mining Diptera larvae are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall. The larvae lie on their sides within the mine and use their pick-like mouthparts to feed on plant tissue. In some corridor miners frass may lie in two rows on alternate sides of the mine. In order to vacate the mine the fully grown larva cuts an exit slit, which is usually semi-circular (see Liriomyza huidobrensis video). The pupa is formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Note: The larvae of mining Coleoptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera may live in a corridor mine, a corridor-blotch mine, a blotch mine, a case, a rolled or folded leaf, a tentiform mine or sandwiched between two more or less circular leaf sections in later instars. Larva may pupate in a silk cocoon. The larva may have at least six legs (although they may be reduced or absent), a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding). Larvae of Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera usually also have abdominal legs (see examples). Frass, if present, never in two rows. Unless feeding externally from within a case the larva usually vacates the mine by chewing an exit hole. Pupa with visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).

12th January 2012 - Pupal and puparial galleries created

New image galleries have been created for pupae / puparia of species of all Orders using images from Bladmineerders en plantengallen van Europa.

This website now includes a total of 2, 355 pages and 4, 555 images. There are about 46, 000 external links and 130, 000 internal links

1st January, 2012 - More Larval galleries created

New image galleries of larvae were created for species of Coleoptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera using images from Bladmineerders en plantengallen van Europa.

This website now includes a total of 2, 355 pages and 4, 161 images. There are about 46, 000 external links and 130, 000 internal links.

2017 : 2016 : 2015 : 2014 : 2013: 2012 : 2011 : 2010 : 2009 : 2008 : 2007


XHTML Validator
Last updated 26-Jan-2016  Brian Pitkin Top of page