The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

N.B. Links to the latest version of 'Leafminers and plant galls of Europe' are being edited

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Fenusa pumila Leach, 1817
[Tenthredinidae]


Fenusa pumila Leach, 1817. The Zoological Miscellany. Being Descriptions of New or Interesting Animals. 3: PAGE
Fenusa pumila (Klug, 1816)
Fenusa (Fenusa) pumila Leach, 1817
Aphadnurus tantillus A. Costa, 1859
Fenusa fuliginosa Healy, 1869
Fenusa minima Brischke, 1883.


Leaf miner: A rather large, clear, partly full depth blotch that begins in the axil of a thick lateral vein. Often the ovipostion leaves a greyish-green scar. Generally several mines in a leaf. The mine expands within the confines of the midrib and two lateral veins; only close to the leaf margin, where the lateral veins are thin, the mine may trespass over a vein (Bladmineerders van Europa).

The mine is also illustrated in British leafminers.

Larva: The larvae of sawflies have a head capsule, chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles, six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (although they may be reduced) (see examples).

The larvae have four spots - the anterior spots being large, which distinguishes it from P. thomsoni (British leafminers). The larva is also illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.

Pupa: The pupae of sawflies have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths.

Adult: Details unknown.

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Betulaceae        
Alnus possibly glutinosa     Derek Mayes (pers. comm.)
Betula       British leafminers
Betula       Pitkin & Plant
Ulmaceae        
Ulmus       Pitkin & Plant

Hosts elsewhere:

Betulaceae        
Alnus viridis Green Alder   Bladmineerders van Europa
Betula caerulea     Bladmineerders van Europa
Betula pendula Silver Birch British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Betula pubescens Downy Birch British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - larvae: Early Summer and early Autumn (British leafminers).

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Comments: Full synonymy and references are listed in ECatSym - Electronic World Catalog of Symphyta.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Britain including Bedfordshire, Buckinghamshire, Denbighshire, Dorset, East Ross, East Sussex, Glamorgan, Merionethshire, North Wiltshire, Nottinghamshire, South Wiltshire, Surrey, West Lancaster and West Suffolk (NBN Atlas). Mines and larvae recently recorded on Alnus, possibly glutinosa, in the Orkneys by Derek Mayes (pers. comm.) have been identified as Fenusa pumila.

Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland (van Achterberg in Fauna Europaea).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria, Azores, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, Finland, French mainland, Germany, Hungary, Italian mainland, Latvia, Poland, Portuguese mainland, Romania, Russia - Central, Slovakia, Spanish mainland, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands and Ukraine. Also recorded in the Nearctic region (van Achterberg in Fauna Europaea).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Alnus viridis, Betula pendula, Betula pubescens

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Ichneumonoidea  
Shawiana catenator (Haliday, 1836) Braconidae: Exothecinae
Xenarcha abnormis (Wesmael, 1838) Braconidae: Exothecinae
Xenarcha lustrator (Haliday, 1836) Braconidae: Exothecinae
Lathrolestes nigricollis (Thomson, 1883) Ichneumonidae: Euryproctinae
Grypocentrus albipes Ruthe, 1855 Ichneumonidae: Tryphoniinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
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