The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

N.B. Links to the latest version of 'Leafminers and plant galls of Europe' are being edited

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Heterarthrus microcephalus (Klug, 1818)
[Tenthredinidae]


Phyllotoma melanopyga (Klug, 1818) [Unavailable]
Phyllotoma microcephala (Klug, 1818) [not 1814]
Tenthredo microcephala Klug, 1818 [not 1814]
Tenthredo (Emphytus) microcephala Klug, 1818 [not 1814]
Emphytus microcephalus (Klug, 1818)
Emphytus (Phyllotoma) microcephalus (Klug, 1818)
Heterarthrus microcephalus (Klug, 1818) [not 1814].


Leaf miner: Oviposition in the very leaf tip. From there a very deep upper surface blotch extends downwards. The blotch, that is very transparent, can occupy a large part of the leaf. Mostly the entire width of the leaf is mined out, but the broad leaves of the Goat Willow are mined at one side of the midrib only. Pupation within the mine in a large, transparent, discoidal cocoon (Bladmineerders van Europa).

The mine is also illustrated in British leafminers.

Larva: The larvae of sawflies have a head capsule, chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles, six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (although they may be reduced) (see examples).

The larva has short legs (British leafminers). The larva is also illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.

Pupa: The pupae of sawflies have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths.

In the mine in a large transparent cocoon (British leafminers).

Adult: The adult is illustrated in ECatSym - Electronic World Catalog of Symphyta.

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Salicaceae        
Salix       British leafminers
Salix aurita Eared Willow   Pitkin & Plant
Salix x sepulcralis Weeping Willow   Pitkin & Plant

Hosts elsewhere:

Salicaceae        
Salix alba White Willow British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Salix aurita Eared Willow British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Salix caprea Goat Willow British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Salix cinerea Grey Willow British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Salix euxina or x fragilis Crack-willow or Hybrid Crack-willow British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Salix myrsinifolia Dark-leaved Willow   Bladmineerders van Europa
Salix pentandra Bay Willow British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Salix phylicifolia Tea-leaved Willow   Bladmineerders van Europa
Salix purpurea Purple Willow British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Salix repens Creeping Willow British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Salix triandra Almond Willow British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Salix viminalis Osier British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - larvae: Summer and Autumn (British leafminers).

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Comments: Full synonymy and references are listed in ECatSym - Electronic World Catalog of Symphyta.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread in Britain including Bedfordshire, Buckinghamshire, Cambridgeshire, Denbighshire, Derbyshire, Dorset, Montgomeryshire, North Wiltshire, South Wiltshire, South-west Yorkshire, Surrey and West Cornwall (NBN Atlas).

Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland (van Achterberg in Fauna Europaea).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, Finland, French mainland, Germany, Hungary, Italian mainland, Latvia, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Romania, Russia - Central, Slovakia, Sweden, The Netherlands and Ukraine (van Achterberg in Fauna Europaea).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Salix alba, Salix aurita, Salix caprea, Salix cinerea, Salix fragilis, Salix myrsinifolia, Salix pentandra, Salix phylicifolia, Salix purpurea, Salix repens, Salix triandra, Salix viminalis, Salix x sepulcralis

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Ichneumonoidea  
Shawiana laevis (Thomson, 1892) Braconidae: Exothecinae
Olesicampe pubescens (Ratzeburg, 1844) Ichneumonidae: Campopleginae
Rhinotorus compactor (Thunberg, 1822) Ichneumonidae: Euryproctinae
Lathrolestes pictilis (Holmgren, 1857) Ichneumonidae: Euryproctinae
Oxyrrhexis carbonator (Gravenhorst, 1807) Ichneumonidae: Pimplinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
Find using Google
Find using Google Scholar
Find images using Google


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Last updated 22-Aug-2017  Brian Pitkin Top of page