The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds


Heterarthrus nemoratus (Fallén, 1808)
[Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae]

Birch leaf-mining sawfly

Hylotoma nemorata Fallén, 1808
Phyllotoma nemorata (Fallén, 1808).
Heterarthrus nemoratus (Fallén, 1808)
Phyllotoma nemoratus (Fallén, 1808)
Phyllotoma nemoralis Fallén, 1829. [Unavailable]
Druida parviceps (Newman, 1837)
Fenusa parviceps Newman, 1837
Phyllotoma tenella Zaddach, 1859
Phlebatrophia mathesoni MacGillivray, 1909
Phlebatrophia mathewsoni MacGillivray, 1909. [Unavailable].

Leaf miner: Large blotch, begining at the leaf margin (there is no accumulation of frass). The oldest part of the mine with a charcteristic, wine red colour. Most of the frass is ejected through a narrow slit in the leaf margin. The larva makes an discoidal cocoon within the mine. Hibernation in the larval stage (Bladmineerders van Europa).

The mine is also illustrated in British leafminers.

Larva: The larvae of sawflies have a head capsule, chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles, six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (although they may be reduced) (see examples).

The larva is illustrated in British leafminers.

Ripper (1931a), Lorenz and Kraus (1957a), Lindquist (1959a) and Smith (1971a) describe the larva. Thoracic feet reduced to stumps. Prosternum with a large dark patch; meso- and metasternum with a small dark spot. Pronotum with a large rectangular black sclerite. In the prepupal stage, when the larva does not feed any more, all pigmentation has disappeared (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Pupa: The pupae of sawflies have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths.

The larva pupates in the mine in a disc structure (British leafminers).

Hosts in Great Britain and Ireland:

Betula       British leafminers
Betula       Plant, in Pitkin & Plant, 2005

Hosts elsewhere:

Betula pendula Silver Birch British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Betula pubescens Downy Birch British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - larvae: Summer British leafminers

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Comments: Full synonymy and references are listed in ECatSym - Electronic World Catalog of Symphyta.

Distribution in Great Britain and Ireland: Britain including Bedfordshire, Buckinghamshire, Easterness, West Suffolk and Westmorland (NBN Atlas).

Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Fauna Europaea).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, French mainland, Germany, ? Italian mainland, Kaliningrad Region, Latvia, Poland, Romania, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands and Ukraine (Fauna Europaea).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Betula pendula, Betula pubescens

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chrysocharis purpurea Bukowski, 1938 Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Closterocerus trifasciatus Westwood, 1833 Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Cirrospilus vittatus Walker, 1838 Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Hemiptarsenus fulvicollis Westwood, 1833 Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Ichneumonoidea - Links to species no longer available  
Dolophron pedella (Holmgren, 1860) Ichneumonidae: Campopleginae
Mesoleius phyllotomae Cushman, 1933 Ichneumonidae: Euryproctinae
Scambus foliae (Cushman, 1938) Ichneumonidae: Pimplinae

External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
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Last updated 18-Oct-2019  Brian Pitkin Top of page