The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

N.B. Links to the latest version of 'Leafminers and plant galls of Europe' are being edited

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Rhamphus oxyacanthae (Marsham, 1802)
[Coleoptera : Curculionidae]


Curculio oxyacanthae Marsham, 1802
Rhamphus oxyacanthae (Marsham, 1802).


Leaf-miner: Usually a very small (but see below), pear-shaped, upper-surface blotch, most of it stuffed with reddish-brown frass. Often several mines in a leaf. Ovipisition is already in May, but the larvae hatch late and initially develop very slowly; only against the end of summer the mines become apparent. The larvae remain the the mine and hibernate in the Fallén leaves. The bright-coloured frass and their large number makes these mines very conspicuous in autumn, despite their small size. The weevils feed pinhole-sized windows in the leaf upperside (maturation feeding) (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Rhamphus oxycanthae
Mine of Rhamphus oxyacanthae on Crataegus monogyna
Image: © Willem Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa)

The mine is illustrated in British leafminers.

Larva: The larvae of beetles have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles and lack abdominal legs (see examples).

The larva is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.

Rhamphus oxyacanthae larva,  dorsal
Rhamphus oxyacanthae larva, dorsal
Image: © Willem Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa)

Pupa: The pupae of beetles have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland: Crataegus (Hawthorn), Sorbus aucuparia (Rowan), Prunus spinosa (Blackthorn)

Rosaceae        
Crataegus       British leafminers
Crataegus       Pitkin & Plant
Prunus spinosa Blackthorn   British leafminers
Mespilus germanica Medlar British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Sorbus aucuparia Rowan British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers

Hosts elsewhere:

Rosaceae        
Amelanchier       Bladmineerders van Europa
Chaenomeles       Bladmineerders van Europa
Crataegus monogyna Hawthorn British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Cotoneaster       Bladmineerders van Europa
Cydonia oblonga Quince British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Malus sylvestris Crab Apple British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Mespilus germanica Medlar British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Prunus avium Wild Cherry British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Prunus domestica subsp. insititia Bullace  

Bladmineerders van Europa, as Prunus insititia

Prunus spinosa Blackthorn British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Pyrus communis Pear   Bladmineerders van Europa
Sorbus       Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - larvae: Univoltine: Autumn. Overwinters full grown in the mine (British leafminers).

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread in Britain including Anglesey, Bedfordshire, Berkshire, Breconshire, Caernarvonshire, Cambridgeshire, Cardiganshire, Carnarvanshire, Chechire, Cumberland, Denbighshire, Derbyshire, Dorset, East Gloucestershire, East Kent, East Norfolk, East Suffolk, East Sussex, Flintshire, Glamorgan, Hertfordshire, Leicestershire, Merionethshire, Mid-west Yorkshire, Monmouthshire, Noth Ebudes, North-east Yorkshire, Nottinghamshire, Shropshire, South Hampshire, South Lincolnshire, South-west Yorkshire, Stafford, Surrey, West Gloucestershire, West Kent, West Norfolk, West Suffolk and Westmorland (NBN Atlas).

Also recorded in Ireland (InvertebrateIreland Online).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Bulgaria, Corsica, Finland, French mainland, Germany, Italian mainland, Moldova, Poland, Russia - Central, East, Northwest and South, Sardinia, Sicily, Sweden and Yugoslavia (Alonso-Zarazaga in Fauna Europaea).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Crataegus monogyna, Cydonia oblonga, Malus sylvestris, Mespilus germanica, Prunus avium, Prunus domestica subsp. insititia, Prunus spinosa, Pyrus communis, Sorbus aucuparia

British Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea   
Entedon punctiscapus Thomson, 1878 Eulophidae: Entodoninae
Cirrospilus vittatus Walker, 1838 Eulophidae: Eulophinae


External links: Search the internet:

Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life, as Curculio oxyacanthae
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist

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