The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

N.B. Links to the latest version of 'Leafminers and plant galls of Europe' are being edited

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Agromyza lathyri Hendel, 1923
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]

Calyptomyza atra Hardy, 1850a. The North British Agriculturalist and Journal of Horticulture. 3rd Aug. 1850: 486. [Preoccupied by Agromyza atra Meigen, 1830, now Cerodontha (Poemyza) atra (Meigen, 1830)]
Agromyza lathyri Hendel, 1923a. Dt. ent. Z. 1923(4): 394
Agromyza lathyri Hendel, 1923a; Hendel, 1931. Fliegen palaearkt. Reg. 6(2): 128
Agromyza lathyri Hendel, 1923a; Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 37 (fig. 112), 41, 117
Agromyza lathyri Hendel, 1923a; Spencer, 1976. Fauna ent. Scand. 5(1): 118, figs 193-6.
Agromyza lathyri Hendel, 1923a; Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the world Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 112. 127, 129 (figs 465-7)
Calyptomyza atra Hardy, 1850a; Bland, 2000. Dipterists Digest 7: 9-14.


Part of mine of Agromyza lathyri on Pisum sativum. Image: Willem Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa)
Part of mine of Agromyza lathyri on Pisum sativum
Image: © Willem Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa)

Leaf-mine: An initially lower-surface linear leaf-mine, which later develops into large whitish blotch and appears pale and mottled from above, due to the variable depth of larval feeding. Less frequently feeding in upper surface or stem (Spencer, 1972b: 37, fig. 112); Spencer, 1976: 118).

The mine starts as a superficial lower-surface corridor. After its first moult the larva starts making a blotch, often close to the base of the leaflet. The blotch in principle is lower-surface, but may be interparenchymatous for some part. Moreover, in places the larva feeds from the palissade parenchyma. Seen from above the leaf appears mottled. The overall result is that the mine, despite its considerable size, is hard to find. The easiest way is to hold the leaves against the light: the large larvae than are conspicuous. Frass in coarse grains, both in the corridor and in the blotch; in the corridor they are widely spaced. Pupation outside the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

The larva is described by Darvas, Skuhravá and Andersen (2000), de Meijere (1926) and in Bladmineerders van Europa.

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Reddish (Bladmineerders van Europa); posterior spiracles each with up to 40 bulbs on a black conical projection (Spencer, 1976: 118, fig. 196).

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Fabaceae        
Lathyrus grandiflorus Two-flowered Everlasting-pea   Mines in BMNH
Lathyrus latifolius Broad-leaved Everlasting-pea British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Lathyrus latifolius Broad-leaved Everlasting-pea British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1991: 46
Lathyrus latifolius Broad-leaved Everlasting-pea British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 117
Lathyrus rotundifolius Round-leaved Vetchling   Mines in BMNH
Lathyrus tuberosus Tuberous Pea British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Pisum sativum Garden Pea   Mines in BMNH
Pisum sativum Garden Pea   Spencer, 1972b: 117

Hosts elsewhere:

Fabaceae        
Lathyrus       Spencer, 1976: 118
Lathyrus       Spencer, 1990: 112
Lathyrus tingitanus Tangier Pea   Bladmineerders van Europa
Lathyrus latifolius Broad-leaved Everlasting-pea British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Lathyrus montanus     Bladmineerders van Europa
Lathyrus niger Black Pea   Bladmineerders van Europa
Lathyrus odoratus Sweet Pea   Bladmineerders van Europa
Lathyrus pratensis Meadow Vetchling British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Lathyrus sylvestris Narrow-leaved Everlasting-pea British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Lathyrus tingitanus     Bladmineerders van Europa
Lathyrus tuberosus Tuberous Pea British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Ononis       Bladmineerders van Europa
Pisum       Spencer, 1990: 112
Pisum sativum Garden Pea  

Bladmineerders van Europa, as Pisum arvense

Pisum sativum Garden Pea   Bladmineerders van Europa
Pisum sativum Garden Pea   Spencer, 1976: 118
Vicia sativa Common Vetch British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Vicia sepium Bush Vetch British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - mines: June-August.

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Kent (New Cross), Surrey (Kew) (Spencer, 1972b: 41), Warwickshire (Coventry) (Robbins, 1991: 46) and Cambridgeshire (NBN Atlas).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Denmark, Germany, Holland, Italy (Spencer, 1976: 118), Corsica, Czech Republic, French mainland, Lithuana, Poland, Romania, Spanish mainland, Sweden and The Netherlands (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Lathyrus grandiflorus, Lathyrus latifolius, Lathyrus montanus, Lathyrus niger, Lathyrus odoratus, Lathyrus pratensis, Lathyrus sylvestris, Lathyrus tuberosus, Pisum sativum, Vicia sativa, Vicia sepium

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea  
Chrysocharis amyite (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Ichneumonoidea  
Eurytenes maculipes Wesmael, 1835 Braconidae: Opiinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
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