The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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LATHYRUS. Peas and Vetchlings. [Fabaceae]


Thirty species of Lathyrus are recorded in Britain. These include the native species Grass Vetchling (L. nissolia), Sea Pea (L. japonicus), Bitter-vetch (L. linifolius), Marsh Pea (L. palustris), Meadow Vetchling (L. pratensis), Yellow Vetchling (L. aphaca) and Narrow-leaved Everlasting-pea (L. sylvestris) and the introduced Broad-leaved Everlasting-pea (L. latifolius) and Black Pea (L. niger).

Marsh Pea (L. palustris) is protected in Northern Ireland under Schedule 8 of the Wildlife (Northern Ireland) Order, 1985.

Sixteen British miners are recorded on Lathyrus.

The tortricid Ancylis paludana is recorded spinning leaves of Lathyrus.

See also Liriomyza species in Glasshouses and/or Quarantine Interceptions.

Sneezewort - Achillea ptarmica. Image: © Brian Pitkin
Broad-leaved Everlasting-pea
Lathyrus latifolius



Key for the identification of the known mines of British
Diptera recorded on Lathyrus


Note: Diptera larvae may live in a corridor mine, a corridor-blotch mine, or a blotch mine, but never in a case, a rolled or folded leaf, a tentiform mine or sandwiched between two more or less circular leaf sections in later instars. Pupation never in a cocoon. All mining Diptera larvae are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall. The larvae lie on their sides within the mine and use their pick-like mouthparts to feed on plant tissue. In some corridor miners frass may lie in two rows on alternate sides of the mine. In order to vacate the mine the fully grown larva cuts an exit slit, which is usually semi-circular (see Liriomyza huidobrensis video). The pupa is formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

See Key to non-Diptera.


1a > Stem or root miner

2

1b > Leaf miner

3

2a > Stem miner: An external stem mine. Pupation in the stem, near or even below ground level, with the anterior spiracles projecting through the epidermis (Spencer, 1976: 72-3).

On Lathyrus, Pisum and Vicia in Britain and Lathyrus and Pisum elsewhere. Widespread in the south of Britain. Widespread in much of Europe.

Ophiomyia orbiculata (Hendel, 1931) [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

2b > Stem miner: A long white mine mainly in the winged stem, frequently starting in leaf (Spencer, 1972b: 42).

The mine begins as a narrow under-surface corridor. It usually quickly becomes upper-surface, and also the following blotch part of the mine is upper-surface. Here and there in the blotch the larvae also eats from the palisade parenchyma, giving the mine a mottled aspect when held against the light, but less strongly than in A. lathyri. Frass in the initial corridor, if at all visible, in short threads; very little frass in the blotch. Pupation outside the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).

The mine is in the wing of the stem, but often starts in leaf (though not always) (British leafminers).

Mine of Agromyza varicornis on Lathyrus latifolius. Image: © Colin Plant (British leafminers)
Mine of Agromyza varicornis on Lathyrus latifolius
Image: © Colin Plant (British leafminers)

On Lathyrus latifolius and Lathyrus sylvestris in Britain and elsewhere. Widespread in Britain and continental Europe.

Agromyza varicornis Strobl, 1898 [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

3a > Leaf-miner: A distinctive mine primarily above mid-rib, with irregular short lateral offshoots into leaf blade. Pupation external (Spencer, 1972: 51 (fig. 172), 55; Spencer, 1976: 270, 271 (fig. 486)).

Branched, whitish, upper-surface corridor; main axis overlying the midrib; side branches overlying the main lateral veins. (In Campanula and Phyteuma the mine is much less branched, sometimes nothing more than a corridor on top of the midrib). Frass in rather long strings. Usually the mines begins as a long and narrow, shallow, tortuous lower-surface corridor that ends upon the midrib but otherwise is not associated with the leaf venation. Often this initial corridor is filled with callus, and then even less conspicuous. Pupation outside the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).

A linear mine on the upper surface, usually following the midrib and showing side branches along the veins. The frass is in strings (British leafminers).

Polyphagous. On more than 40 host genera in 15 families, but not yet on Lathyrus, in Britain,. Widespread throughout Britain. Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland. Widespread in continental Europe.

Liriomyza strigata (Meigen, 1830) [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

3b > Leaf miner: An initially lower-surface linear leaf-mine, which later develops into large whitish blotch and appears pale and mottled from above, due to the variable depth of larval feeding. Less frequently feeding in upper surface or stem (Spencer, 1972b: 37, fig. 112); Spencer, 1976: 118).

The mine starts as a superficial lower-surface corridor. After its first moult the larva starts making a blotch, often close to the base of the leaflet. The blotch in principle is lower-surface, but may be interparenchymatous for some part. Moreover, in places the larva feeds from the palissade parenchyma. Seen from above the leaf appears mottled. The overall result is that the mine, despite its considerable size, is hard to find. The easiest way is to hold the leaves against the light: the large larvae than are conspicuous. Frass in coarse grains, both in the corridor and in the blotch; in the corridor they are widely spaced. Pupation outside the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Puparium reddish

Part of mine of Agromyza lathyri on Pisum sativum. Image: © Willem Ellis (Bladmineerders en plantengallen van Europa)
Part of mine of Agromyza lathyri on Pisum sativum
Image: © Willem Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa)

On Lathyrus grandiflorus, Lathyrus latifolius, Lathyrus rotundifolius, Lathyrus tuberosus and Pisum sativum in Britain and additional species and genera of Fabaceae elsewhere. Widespread in southern England - Kent, Surrey, Warwick and Cambridge and Widespread in continental Europe.

Agromyza lathyri Hendel, 1923 [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

3c > Leaf-miner: Mine linear, whitish, both upper and lower surface. Pupation internal, at the end of the mine with the anterior spiracles projecting through the epidermis (Spencer, 1976: 433).

Upper-surface, less often lower-surface corridor. Frass in isolated grains. Pupation within the mine, usually in a lower-surface puparial chamber (Bladmineerders van Europa).

A long whitish upper surface corridor, which eventually goes lower surface (British leafminers).

Two highly polyphagous species of Chromatomyia, with indistinguishable mines, have been recorded in Britain. These are syngenesiae (Hardy) and horticola (Goureau) which can only be distinguished by the male genitalia. Both species are widespread in Britain and elsewhere, although syngenesiae is almost entirely restricted to Asteraceae. Records on Asteraceae not based on examination of male genitalia are treated in this account as Chromatomyia 'atricornis'.

Chromatomyia horticola is recorded on 160 plant genera in 31 families of which 55 plant genera in 19 families, including Lathyrus, in Britain.

Chromatomyia horticola (Goureau, 1851) [Diptera: Agromyzidae]

3d > Leaf miner: An upper surface linear mine with frass in conspicuous greenish strips, largely alternating at each side of the channel. Puparium yellow

Liriomyza congesta puparium
Liriomyza congesta puparium
Image: © Willem Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa)

Polyphagous. On numerous genera of Fabaceae, including Lathyrus, in Britain and elsewhere. Widespread in Britain. Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland and widespread and common throughout most of Europe.

Liriomyza congesta (Becker, 1903) [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

3e > Leaf miner: A long linear mine, normally starting on lower surface, frass in black strips alternately at sides of mine (Spencer, 1972b: 58).

Long whitish corridor, almost always lower-surface at first, then becoming largely or totally upper-surface. Because lower- and upper-surface tracts often cross the leaf looks distinctly mottled whe held against the light. The final part of the corridor is generally upper-surface. The corridor often follows a thick vein for a considerable distance. Frass in alternating thread fragments. Pupation outside the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).

On Lathryus, Pisum and Vicia in Britain and Lathryus and Pisum elsewhere. Only known from Kent, Surrey, Herts and Warwick in Britain. Widespread in continental Europe.

Liriomyza pisivora Hering, 1957 [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

3f > Leaf-miner: A short, irregular, linear upper surface mine on any part of the leaf. Also recorded from young pods (Bland, 1997a).

Long corridor mine. As a rule the first part of the mine is lower-surface, the later part upper-surface. Often the loops are so dense that a secondary blotch is the result. Because upper- and lower-surface corridor segments often cross, the mine obtains a strange array of transparant patches. There is no association with the midrib. Frass in strings and thread fragments. Pupation outside the mine; exit slit in upper epidermis (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Mine not associated with the veins or midrib of the leaf (It is this character which enables distinction from another Agromyzid pest species - Liriomyza huidobriensis). The larvae may leave one leaf (if not large enough) and enter another leaf, via the petiole). It exits the leaf to pupate through a semi-circular slit in the upper surface of the leaf (British leafminers).

Polyphagous. On 119 plant genera in 31 plant families of which only 4 plant genera in 2 plant families, but not yet on Lathyrus, in Britain. On Alisma elsewhere. Local, probably introduced to Britain. Widespread in continental Europe particularly in Botanical Gardens and glasshouses. Also recorded in Egypt.

Liriomyza bryoniae (Kaltenbach, 1858) [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

3g > Leaf-miner: A narrow linear mine adjoining the leaf margin in the first instar, which later develops into an irregular blotch with conspicuous lumps of greenish frass (Spencer, 1976: 302).

The first instar larva makes a narrow upper-surface corridor along the leaf margin. After it has moulted it begins a large upper-surface blotch. Frass in conspicuous green lumps, that can run out irregularly. Pupation outside the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Forms a narrow linear mine by the margin of the leaf which later develops into a blotch. The blotch has clumps of greenish frass (British leafminers).

On Astragalus and Colutea, but not yet on Lathyrus, in Britain and Anthyllis, Astragalus, Cicer, Colutea, Coronilla, Cytisus, Lathyrus, Oxytropis, Securinega and Vicia elsewhere. Widespread in continental Europe.

Phytoliriomyza variegata (Meigen, 1830) [Diptera: Agromyzidae].



Key for the identification of the known mines of British
non-Diptera recorded on Lathyrus


Note: The larvae of mining Coleoptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera may live in a corridor mine, a corridor-blotch mine, a blotch mine, a case, a rolled or folded leaf, a tentiform mine or sandwiched between two more or less circular leaf sections in later instars. Larva may pupate in a silk cocoon. The larva may have six legs (although they may be reduced or absent), a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding). Larvae of Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera usually also have abdominal legs (see examples). Frass, if present, never in two rows. Unless feeding externally from within a case the larva usually vacates the mine by chewing an exit hole. Pupa with visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).


1a> Leaf-miner: Small full depth blotch; older larvae free among spun leaves (Robbins, 1991a).

On Lathyrus, Vicia and Trifolium in Britain and on Lathyrus, Melilotus and Trifoloium elsewhere. Widespread in Britain. Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland. Widespread in continental Europe.

Ancylis badiana (Denis & Schiffermmüller, 1775) [Lepidoptera: Tortricidae].

1b > Leaf-miner: The first generation initially forms an unmistakable leaf-mine on Anthyllis vulneraria, but the second generation feeds on the flowers. Feeding signs on other plants vary in appearance. Larvae can move between sewn leaves, and more than one larva may be found together (UKMoths). Larvae in a small full depth blotch, often with extensions. Frass concentrated in one corner of the mine. The mining activities may cause the leaf to roll inwards. Older larvae live free among spun leaves, but still they may make then full depth mines by feeding on the leaf tissue from a small opening (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Aproaerema anthyllidella larva,  dorsal
Aproaerema anthyllidella larva, dorsal
Image: © Steve Wullaert (Bladmineerders van Europa)

On Anthyllis, Medicago, Onobrychis, Ononis and Trifolium, but not yet on Lathyrus, in Britain and Anthyllis, Chamaecytisus, Coronilla, Cysisus, Dorycnium, Galega, Glycine, Hymenocarpus, Lathyrus, Lotus, Medicago, Melilotus, Onobrychis, Ononis, Ornithopus, Oxytropis, Phaseolus, Psoralea, Trifolium, Trigonella and Vicia elsewhere. Britain including the Channel Is. and Northern Ireland. Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland. Widespread in continental Europe.

Aproaerema anthyllidella (Hübner, 1813) [Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae].

1c > Leaf-miner: In the first instar the larva mines the leaves, forming short, irregular, blotch-like mines, but in later instars it lives externally, feeding in spun leaves and often twisting those of tender shoots. Larval head light-brown or yellowish brown, edged with black postero-laterally, ocellar area blackish; prothoracic plate black edged with whitish anteriorly; abdomen dull dark green; pinacula distinct, black, sometimes brownish but with black bases to setae; anal plate large, black (Bradley et al., 1973). Small, full depth mine without a definite shape; little frass. Some silk is deposited in the mine. The larva soon leaves the mine and continues feeding among spun leaves (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Polyphagous. On numerous genera and species of several plant families, including Lathyrus, in Britain and elsewhere. Widespread in Britain and continental Europe. Also recorded from the Channel Is.

Cnephasia incertana (Treitschke, 1835) [Lepidoptera: Tortricidae].

1d > Leaf-miner: A blotch mine is formed with a small area of browning of the leaf around the egg (British leafminers). Flat, upper-surface, oval blotch without a preceding gallery, with clear amounts of greenish frass. Sometimes more than one mine in a leaflet, that can merge. Pupation outside the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).

On Vicia, but not yet on Lathyrus, in Britain and Lathyrus and Vicia elsewhere. Britain (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea) including Dorset.

Cosmopterix schmidiella Frey, 1856 [Lepidoptera: Cosmopterigidae].

1e> Leaf-miner: A blotch mine is formed with a small area of browning of the leaf around the egg (British leafminers). Flat, upper-surface, oval blotch without a preceding gallery, with clear amounts of greenish frass. Sometimes more than one mine in a leaflet, that can merge. Pupation outside the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).

On Lathyrus in Britain and elsewhere. Isle of Wight and South Devon. Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland. Widespread in northwest continental Europe.

Leucoptera lathyrifoliella (Stainton, 1866) [Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae].

1f > Leaf-miner: Lower surface tentiform mine that occupies only part of a leaflet. In full grown leaves the mine is strongly inflated and is largely hidden by the leaf. Unlike other species the entire leaflet is not mined out (Bladmineerders van Europa).

On Ononis and Trifoliumin Britain, but not yet on Lathyrus, in Britain and Lathyrus, Medicago, Ononis, Trifolium and Vicia elsewhere. North Ebudes. Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland. Widespread in continental Europe.

Phyllonorycter insignitella (Zeller, 1846) [Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae].

1g > Leaf-miner: The mine is underside, occupying the whole leaflet, which turns down at edges (British leafminers). Lower surface tentiform mine that occupies an entire leaflet; lower epidermis strongly folded. Fully developed mines are strongly inflated and the leaflet is so completely folded over the mine that the latter becomes practically invisible. In this stage the larva has consumed also all tissue in the roof of the mine, making the mine very conspicuous (Bladmineerders van Europa).

On Lathyrus, Medicago, Trifolium and Vicia in Britain and Lathyrus, Lotus, Medicago, Trifolium and Vicia elsewhere. England, Ireland and continental Europe.

Phyllonorycter nigrescentella (Logan, 1851) [Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae].



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