The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Agromyza lucida Hendel, 1920
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]

Agromyza lucida Hendel, 1920. Arch. Naturgesch. 84A(7)(1828): 121
Agromyza airae Karl, 1926. Stettin. ent. Ztg. 87: 138
Agromyza lucida Hendel, 1920; Griffiths, 1963b. Tijdschr. Ent. 106: 133
Agromyza lucida Hendel, 1920; Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 34 (fig. 98), 39, 123
Agromyza lucida Hendel, 1920; Spencer, 1976. Fauna ent. Scand. 5(1): 119-120, figs 197-200.
Agromyza lucida Hendel, 1920; Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the world Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 354, 355, 359, 361, 364.


Leaf-mine: Larvae either singly or several in leaf, then forming large blotch-mine, feeding first up and then down the leaf. Pupation external (Spencer, 1976: 119).

Shallow upper-surface corridor, without full-depth sections, starting high in the leaf. Initially the corridor runs up, but soon it changes direction, quickly widening. In Deschampsia generally one mine per leaf, occupying its entire width; in Glyceria there mostly are serveral mines that merge in the end. Pupation outside the mine; the puparium often sticks to the leaf (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

The larva is described by Griffiths (1963) and in Bladmineerders van Europa. Mandibles with three teeth (Spencer, 1976: 119).

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Black or dark red, frequently adhering to the leaf near end of mine; posterior spiracles each with 3 bulbs (Spencer, 1976: 119).

Black or dark brown (Karl, 1926a) (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Comments: Records on Elytrigia (as Agropyron), Bromus and Holcus given by Hering (1957a) are considered doubtful by Griffiths (Spencer, 1990) and represent other Agromyza species.

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Poaceae        
Dactylis       Robbins, 1989: 19
Deschampsia cespitosa Hair-grass British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Deschampsia cespitosa Hair-grass British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1991: 135
Deschampsia cespitosa Hair-grass British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 123
Glyceria maxima Reed Sweet-grass British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 123

Hosts elsewhere:

Poaceae        
Deschampsia       Spencer, 1990: 354
Deschampsia cespitosa Hair-grass British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1976: 119
Deschampsia cespitosa Hair-grass British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Echinaria       Spencer, 1990: 355
Glyceria       Spencer, 1990: 355
Glyceria maxima Reed Sweet-grass British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1976: 119
Glyceria maxima Reed Sweet-grass British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - mines: July-September.

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread in Britain including Surrey (Ash Vale), Cambridge (Chippenham Fen) (Spencer, 1972b: 39), Warwickshire (Leamington Spa) (Robbins, 1991: 135) and Dunbarton (Bonhill) (Spencer, 1972b: 39). Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland: Co. Clare (Spencer, 1972b: 39). (NBN Atlas).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Holland, Germany, Austria, [former] Czechoslovakia, Poland, Russia (Spencer, 1976: 119), The Netherlands (Bladmineerders van Europa), Finland, French mainland, Italian mainland, Lithuania, Slovakia, Spanish mainland and Sweden (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

Also recorded in Canada (Ontario) (Spencer, 1969a: 47; Spencer, 1990).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Deschampsia cespitosa, Glyceria maxima

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Ichneumonoidea  
Chorebus cinctus (Haliday, 1839) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Exotela flavicoxa (Thomson, 1895) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Heterolexis balteata (Thomson, 1895) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Eurytenes polyzonius Wesmael, 1835 Braconidae: Opiinae
Phaedrotoma rex (Fischer, 1958) Braconidae: Opiinae
Rhogadopsis reconditor Wesmael, 1835 Braconidae: Opiinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
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