The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Agromyza myosotidis Kaltenbach, 1864
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]

Agromyza myosotidis Kaltenbach, 1864. Verh. naturh. Ver. preuss. Rheinl. 21: 250
Agromyza myosotidis Kaltenbach, 1864; Spencer, 1963a. Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde 115: 2
Agromyza myosotidis Kaltenbach, 1864; Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 34 (fig. 91), 35, 109
Agromyza myosotidis Kaltenbach, 1864; Spencer, 1976. Fauna ent. Scand. 5(1): 124, figs 208-10.
Agromyza myosotidis Kaltenbach, 1864; Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the world Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 198, 199.


Leaf-mine: A large, irregular blotch mine with a short linear section in the first instar which is frequently entirely enveloped in the fully developed mine and may then be no longer visible (Spencer, 1976: 124).

Perhaps the only character differentiating it from abiens is the presence of several larvae in a fully developed mine of abiens and just one in myosotidis (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Reddish-brown; posterior spiracles each with 3 bulbs (Spencer, 1976: 124).

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Boraginaceae        
Cynoglossum officinale Hound's-tongue British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Images ex Steve Gregory
Lithospermum arvense Field Gromwell   Pitkin & Plant
Myosotis       Mines in BMNH
Myosotis       Robbins, 1991: 97
Myosotis scorpioides Water Forget-me-not British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Myosotis scorpioides (as palustris) Water Forget-me-not British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 109
Myosotis sylvatica Wood Forget-me-not British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1989: 19
Pentaglottis sempervirens Green Alkanet British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Pentaglottis sempervirens Green Alkanet British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 109
Symphytum       Robbins, 1991: 96
Symphytum officinale Common Comfrey British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 109

Hosts elsewhere:

Boraginaceae        
Anchusa       Spencer, 1990: 199
Borago       Spencer, 1990: 199
Borago officinalis Borage British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Cynoglossum       Spencer, 1990: 199
Cynoglossum       Bladmineerders van Europa
Cynoglossum hochstetteri     Mines in BMNH
Myosotis       Bladmineerders van Europa
Myosotis       Mines in BMNH
Myosotis       Spencer, 1976: 124
Myosotis       Spencer, 1990: 199
Pentaglottis       Spencer, 1976: 124
Pentaglottis sempervirens Green Alkanet British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Symphytum       Spencer, 1976: 124
Symphytum       Spencer, 1990: 199
Symphytum officinale Common Comfrey British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Symphytum tuberosum Tuberous Comfrey British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - mines: July-August, October.

Time of year - adults: September.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread in Britain including Hampshire (Barnet), Oxford (Oxford), Suffolk (Dunwich), Denbighshire (Cefn-y-bedd) (Spencer, 1972b: 35) and Warwickshire (Corley and Coventry) (Robbins, 1991: 97); Cambridgeshire, East Ross and South-west Yorkshire (NBN Atlas).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Denmark, Germany, Poland, Sweden (Spencer, 1976: 124) and the [former] U.S.S.R. (Mines in BMNH), Austria, Belgium, Canary Is., Czech Republic, French mainland, Spanish mainland and Switzerland (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

Also recorded in Ethiopia (Spencer, 1976: 124).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Borago officinalis, Lithospermum arvense, Myosotis scorpioides, Myosotis sylvatica, Pentaglottis sempervirens, Symphytum officinale, Symphytum tuberosum

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea   
Chrysocharis orbicularis (Nees, 1834) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis pubicornis (Zetterstedt, 1838) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Ichneumonoidea  
Chorebus deione (Nixon, 1944) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Opius singularis Wesmael, 1835 Braconidae: Opiinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
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Find using Google Scholar
Find images using Google


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