The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Agromyza abiens Zetterstedt, 1848
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]

Agromyza abiens Zetterstedt, 1848. Dipt. Scand. 7: 2747
Agromyza abiens Zetterstedt, 1848; Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 32 (fig. 85), 35, 109
Agromyza abiens Zetterstedt, 1848; Spencer, 1976. Fauna ent. Scand. 5(1): 88, 89 (figs 116-9)
Agromyza abiens Zetterstedt, 1848; Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the world Agromyzidae (Diptera): 196, 197 (figs 737-8), 198, 199, 400.


Leaf-mine: A narrow linear leaf-mine, which developes into a large blotch. Several larvae frequently feed together and the resulting mine can entirely fill the leaf (Spencer, 1976: 89).

The mine begins with a narrow, parallel sided corridor af 1-8 cm in length, with a nice double frass line. After the first moult the corridor is succeeded, and mostly overrun, by a large, primary, brown blotch. Frass in the initial corridor in short thread fragments, in the blotch in angular granules and thread fragments that often are branching (the frass is unusally sticky). Primary and secondary feeding lines conspicuous. The final mine often is very large and generally contains several larvae, because normally several mines develop on a leaf, and coalesce into one big blotch. Before pupation the larvae leave the mine through a semicircular exit slit that mostly, but not invariably, is in the upper epidermis (Bladmineerders van Europa).

The initial narrow gallery contains frass in a double line. It then expands to form a blotch mine. Several larvae may occupy a leaf to form a large blotch (British leafminers).

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

The white larva is described by Nowakowski (1964), Dempewolf (2001:51) and is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa. The mandibles each have two teeth and are equal in size (Griffiths, 1962).

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Reddish brown; posterior spiracles each with 3 bulbs on a short conical protuberance (Spencer, 1976: 89).

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Boraginaceae        
Anchusa       Robbins, 1991: 97
Anchusa officinalis Alkanet   Mines in BMNH
Borago officinalis Borage British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Borago officinalis Borage British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 109
Cynoglossum germanicum Green Hound's-tongue British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Cynoglossum germanicum Green Hound's-tongue British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 109
Cynoglossum officinale Hound's-tongue British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Echium       Spencer, 1972b: 35
Echium       Robbins, 1991: 97
Echium vulgare Viper's-bugloss British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Echium vulgare Viper's-bugloss British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 109
Myosotis arvensis Field Forget-me-not British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Myosotis scorpioides Water Forget-me-not British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Myosotis sylvatica Wood Forget-me-not British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Pentaglottis sempervirens Green Alkanet British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 109
Pulmonaria       Robbins, 1991: 97
Pulmonaria       British leafminers
Pulmonaria longifolia Narrow-leaved Lungwort   Mines in BMNH
Pulmonaria officinalis Lungwort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1989: 18
Symphytum       Robbins, 1991: 96
Symphytum       British leafminers
Symphytum officinale Common Comfrey British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1989: 18
Symphytum officinale Common Comfrey British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 109
Symphytum x uplandicum Russian Comfrey British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1989: 18, as Symphytum officinale x asperum

Hosts elsewhere:

Boraginaceae        
? Amsinckia       Bladmineerders van Europa
Anchusa       Spencer, 1976: 89
Anchusa       Spencer, 1990: 199
Anchusa arvensis Bugloss British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Anchusa azurea Garden Anchusa British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Anchusa capensis Cape Alkanet   Bladmineerders van Europa
Anchusa officinalis Alkanet   Bladmineerders van Europa
Asperugo       Spencer, 1976: 89
Asperugo       Spencer, 1990: 199
Asperugo procumbens Madwort   Bladmineerders van Europa
Borago       Spencer, 1976: 89
Borago officinalis Borage British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Dempewolf, 2001: 51
Borago officinalis Borage British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Brunnera macrophylla Great Forget-me-not British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Cerinthe       Spencer, 1990: 199
Cerinthe glabra Smooth Honeywort   Bladmineerders van Europa
Cerinthe minor Lesser Honeywort   Bladmineerders van Europa
Cynoglossum       Spencer, 1976: 89
Cynoglossum       Spencer, 1990: 199
Cynoglossum cheirifolium     Bladmineerders van Europa
Cynoglossum creticum     Bladmineerders van Europa
Cynoglossum officinale Hound's-tongue British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Cynoglossum officinale Hound's-tongue British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Echium       Spencer, 1976: 89
Echium       Spencer, 1990: 199
Echium fastuosum     Bladmineerders van Europa
Echium italicum Pale Bugloss   Bladmineerders van Europa
Echium plantagineum Purple Viper's-bugloss   Bladmineerders van Europa
Echium vulgare Viper's-bugloss British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Lappula       Spencer, 1990: 199
Lappula squarrosa Bur Forget-me-not   Bladmineerders van Europa
Lithospermum purpurocaeruleum Purple Gromwell British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Lithospermum officinale Common Gromwell British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Lycopsis       Spencer, 1976: 89
Lycopsis       Spencer, 1990: 199
Myosotis       Spencer, 1990: 199
Myosotis alpestris Alpine Forget-me-not British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Myosotis arvensis Field Forget-me-not British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Myosotis caespitosa     Bladmineerders van Europa
Myosotis ramosissima Early Forget-me-not British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al.

Bladmineerders van Europa, as Myosotis hispida

Myosotis hybrida     Bladmineerders van Europa
Myosotis intermedia     Bladmineerders van Europa
Myosotis palustris Common Water Forget-Me-Not   Bladmineerders van Europa
Myosotis sylvatica Wood Forget-me-not British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Nonea       Spencer, 1990: 199
Omphalodes       Spencer, 1990: 199
Omphalodes verna Blue-eyed-Mary British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Onosma visiani      
Pentaglottis       Spencer, 1976: 89
Pentaglottis sempervirens Green Alkanet British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Podonosma       Spencer, 1990: 199
Pulmonaria       Spencer, 1976: 89
Pulmonaria       Spencer, 1990: 199
Pulmonaria maculata     Bladmineerders van Europa
Pulmonaria montana Mountain Lungwort   Bladmineerders van Europa
Pulmonaria obscura Suffolk Lungwort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Pulmonaria officinalis Lungwort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Symphytum       Spencer, 1976: 89
Symphytum       Spencer, 1990: 199
Symphytum officinale Common Comfrey British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Symphytum tuberosum Tuberous Comfrey British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - mines: June-October.

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread in Britain (Spencer, 1972b: 88) including Hampshire (Fleet) (British leafminers), Warwickshire (Hartshill) (Robbins, 1991: 96), Fife (Aberdour) and Dunbarton (Bonhill) (Spencer, 1956; Bland, 1994c), East Sussex (VC14), Glamorganshire (VC41), South Aberdeenshire (VC92), Surrey (VC17), West Gloucestershire (VC34) and West Suffolk (VC26) (NBN Atlas).

Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland: Co. Down (Spencer, 1972b: 88).

Distribution elsewhere: Common and widespread throughout most of Europe, including Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden (Spencer, 1976: 88), The Netherlands, Luxembourg (Bladmineerders van Europa) and Germany (Spencer, 1976: 542; Dempewolf, 2001: 51), Austria, ? Corsica, Czech Republic, Hungary, Italian mainland, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Spanish mainland, Switzerland and Yugoslavia (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Anchusa arvensis, Anchusa azurea, Anchusa officinalis, Asperugo procumbens, Borago officinalis, Brunnera macrophylla, Cynoglossum germanicum, Cynoglossum officinale, Echium italicum, Echium plantagineum, Echium vulgare, Lappula squarrosa, Lithospermum officinale, Lithospermum purpurocaerulea, Myosotis alpestris, Myosotis arvensis, Myosotis ramosissima, Myosotis scorpioides, Myosotis sylvatica, Omphalodes verna, Pentaglottis sempervirens, Pulmonaria longifolia, Pulmonaria obscura, Pulmonaria officinalis, Symphytum officinale, Symphytum tuberosum

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea   
Chrysocharis amyite (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Miscogaster rufipes Walker, 1833 Pteromalidae: Miscogastrinae
Ichneumonoidea  
Chorebus deione (Nixon, 1944) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dacnusa abdita (Haliday, 1839) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dacnusa maculipes Thomson, 1895 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dacnusa maxima (Fischer, 1961) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Atormus victus (Haliday, 1837) Braconidae: Opiinae


External links: Search the internet:

Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist

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