The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Agromyza rufipes Meigen, 1830
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]

Agromyza rufipes Meigen, 1830. Syst. Beschr. 6: 169
Agromyza buhriella Hering, 1954. Tijdschr. Ent. 97: 118
Agromyza buhriella Hering, 1954; Hering, 1957. Bestimmunstabellen der Blattminen von Europa 3: 7.
Agromyza rufipes Meigen, 1830; Spencer, 1963a. Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde 115: 1
Agromyza rufipes Meigen, 1830; Nowakowski, 1964. Beitr. Ent. 14: 197
Agromyza rufipes Meigen, 1830. Spencer, 1976. Fauna ent. Scand. 5(1): 137-139, figs 253-4.
Agromyza rufipes Meigen, 1830; Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the world Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 57, 299, 300 (figs 1148A-B), 301.


Leaf-mine: Blotch mine (Spencer, 1990: 299).

The mine is a large whitish underside blotch with clear feeding lines and pupation is external (Robbins, 1989: 117).

The mine starts as a star-shaped interparenchymatous blotch near the midrib. This is followed by a broad, corridor-like arc around the central part of the leaf tip. The circumcised section of the leaf dies off and remains as a black patch in the centre of the mine. Primary and secondary feeding lines well visible in fresh leaves. Frass in coarse grains. Often several mines coalesce into one. Pupation outside the mine; semicircular exit slit in the upper epidermis (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

The larva is described by Nowakowski (1964). Also Beri (1971c) gives a description of the larva - twice in fact: as A. buhriella from an Aster species, and as rufipes from an unknown grass; neither description will relate to rufipes (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Reddish-brown; spiracular processes each with 3 small bulbs (Spencer, 1976: 141).

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Asteraceae        
Artemisia       Pitkin & Plant
Artemisia vulgaris Mugwort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1989: 117

Hosts elsewhere:

Asteraceae        
Artemisia vulgaris Mugwort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1976: 141
Artemisia vulgaris Mugwort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1990: 301
Artemisia vulgaris Mugwort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - mines: July and September (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: First recorded from Coventry by Robbins (1989: 117) and added to British checklist by Henshaw in Chandler, 1998: 136; Surrey (VC17) (NBN Atlas).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Denmark, Poland (Spencer, 1976: 141), Belgium (de Bruyn and von Tschirnhaus, 1991), Germany (Spencer, 1976: 550), Czech Republic, French mainland, Hungary, Lithuania, Sardinia, Spanish mainland and The Netherlands (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Artemisia vulgaris

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea   
Chrysocharis pentheus (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis pubicornis (Zetterstedt, 1838) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysonotomyia germanicus (Erdös, 1956) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Diglyphus chabrias (Walker, 1838) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Miscogaster rufipes Walker, 1833 Pteromalidae: Miscogastrinae
Ichneumonoidea  
Chorebus deione (Nixon, 1944) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Exotela hera (Nixon, 1937) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Apodesmia rufipes (Wesmael, 1835) Braconidae: Opiinae
Opius singularis Wesmael, 1835 Braconidae: Opiinae
Utetes rotundiventris (Thomson, 1895) Braconidae: Opiinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
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