The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

N.B. Links to the latest version of 'Leafminers and plant galls of Europe' are being edited

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Agromyza sulfuriceps Strobl, 1898
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]

Agromyza sulfuriceps Strobl, 1898a. Mitt. naturw. Ver. Steierm. 34: 270
Agromyza sulfuriceps Strobl, 1898a; Hendel, 1931. Fliegen palaearkt. Reg. 6(2): 152
Agromyza sulfuriceps Strobl, 1898a; Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 30 (figs 73-4), 31, 119
Agromyza sulfuriceps Strobl, 1898a; Spencer, 1976. Fauna ent. Scand. 5(1): 143-4, figs 261-3A.
Agromyza sulfuriceps Strobl, 1898a; Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the world Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 102, 103 (fig 368), 104.


Leaf-mine: Mine frequently starting along leaf margin, initially linear, later developing into an elongate blotch, frass in two distinct rows, even at end (Spencer, 1972b: 30, fig. 74; Spencer, 1976: 144, fig. 263A).

First a long corridor, its initial part often along the leaf margin or a thick vein. Rather suddenly the corridor widens into a broad blotch. The corridor contains much, amorphous frass that sometimes seems to fill the entire corridor (lower picture). In the blotch the frass is in black strings and coarse lumps. (In rainy weather they liquify and loose their shape). Pupation outside the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).

A narrow upper surface gallery to start, then broadening and zigzagging to create a false blotch (British leafminers).

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

The description by de Meijere (1937a) is incorrect, according to Hering (1954a). Rear spiraculum with 8 bulbs. See also an illustration of the cephalic skeleton by Starý (1930a) (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Reddish-brown; posterior spiracles each with 6 bulbs (Spencer, 1976: 144).

Comments: Potentilla palustris is treated as Comarum palustre (Marsh Cinquefoil) and Sanguisorba minor is treated as Poterium sanguisorba (Salad Burnet) by Stace (2010).

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Rosaceae        
Filipendula ulmaria Meadowsweet British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1991: 50
Filipendula ulmaria Meadowsweet British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 119
Filipendula ulmaria Meadowsweet British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Fragaria ananassa Garden Strawberry British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
? Fragaria ananassa ? Garden Strawberry British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1991: 50
Fragaria vesca Wild Strawberry British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Fragaria vesca Wild Strawberry British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Pitkin & Plant
Fragaria vesca Wild Strawberry British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1991: 50
Fragaria vesca Wild Strawberry British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 119
Potentilla anserina Silverweed British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1991: 50
Potentilla anserina Silverweed British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
? Potentilla palustris ? Marsh Cinquefoil British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 119
Potentilla reptans Creeping Cinquefoil British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1991: 50
Potentilla reptans Creeping Cinquefoil British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Potentilla sterilis Barren Strawberry British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1989: 20

? Rosa

      Pitkin & Plant
Rosa canina Dog Rose British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1991: 50
Rubus fruticosus Bramble / Blackberry   Robbins, 1989: 20
Rubus idaeus Raspberry British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Rubus idaeus Raspberry British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1991: 50
Rubus idaeus Raspberry British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 119
Sanguisorba minor Salad Burnet British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1991: 50
Sanguisorba minor Salad Burnet British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Sanguisorba officinalis Great Burnet British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 119

Hosts elsewhere:

Rosaceae        
Filipendula       Spencer, 1990: 102
Filipendula ulmaria Meadowsweet British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Fragaria vesca Wild Strawberry British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Potentilla       Spencer, 1976: 144
Potentilla       Spencer, 1990: 102
Potentilla anserina Silverweed British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Potentilla argentea Hoary Cinquefoil   Bladmineerders van Europa
Potentilla erecta Tormentil British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Potentilla reptans Creeping Cinquefoil British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Rubus   A bramble   Spencer, 1990: 102
Rubus idaeus Raspberry British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Rubus saxatilis Stone Bramble British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Sanguisorba       Spencer, 1976: 144
Sanguisorba       Spencer, 1990: 102
Sanguisorba minor Salad Burnet British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - mines: Bivoltine: early summer and early autumn (British leafminers).

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread in Britain including. Cambridge (Chippenham Fen), Huntingdonshire (Woodwalton Fen), Dunbarton (Bonhill) (Spencer, 1972b: 31), Warwickshire (Robbins, 1991: 50) and Anglesey, Breconshire, Cambridgeshire, East Gloucestershire, Easterness, Glamorgan, North Ebudes, North Wiltshire, South Lancaster, South-east Yorkshire and Stafford (NBN Atlas).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Denmark, Finland, Sweden (Spencer, 1976: 143), The Netherlands, Luxembourg (Bladmineerders van Europa), Belgium (de Bruyn and von Tschirnhaus, 1991), Germany (Spencer, 1976: 550), Austria, Czech Republic, Estonia, French mainland, Italian mainland, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia and Switzerland (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

Also recorded in Canada (Spencer, 1969a: 58).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Filipendula ulmaria, Fragaria ananassa, Fragaria vesca, Potentilla anserina, Potentilla argentea, Potentilla erecta, Potentilla palustris (= Comarum palustre), Potentilla reptans, Potentilla sterilis, Rosa canina, Rubus fruticosus, Rubus idaeus, Sanguisorba minor (= Poterium sanguisorba), Sanguisorba officinalis

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Ichneumonoidea  
Grammospila rufiventris (Nees, 1812) Braconidae: Alysiinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
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