The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Calycomyza humeralis (von Roser, 1840)
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]

Agromyza humeralis von Roser, 1840. CorrespBl. würt. landw, Ver. Stuttg. (N.S.) 17(1): 63
Agromyza humeralis von Roser, 1840; Hendel, 1931. Die Fliegen Pal. Reg. 59: 68
Calycomyza humeralis (von Roser, 1840); Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 46
Calycomyza humeralis (von Roser, 1840); Spencer, 1976. Fauna ent. Scand. 5(1): 306, figs 553-5.
Calycomyza humeralis (von Roser, 1840); Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the world Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 265, 274, 280 (figs 1068-70), 281, 309, 315.


Leaf-mine: A short linear mine in first instar, later producing a circular or oval blotch. Frass is excreted in a black mass prior to pupation; puparium firmly glued with frass within the mine (Spencer, 1976: 306).

Large, whitish, upper-surface blotch, preceded by a short corridor that often is overrun later by the developing blotch. The larva hardly produces any frass; the few grains that are present are black and rather coarse. But when the larva is about to pupate, it empties its intestine, which has the effect that the puparium is anchored in the mine by dried frass (Bladmineerders van Europa).

The initial gallery by the first instar larva then leads to a whitish blotch. The puparium is fixed to the inside of the mine by an accumulation of frass (British leafminers).

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

The larvae was described by de Meijere (1925) and Sasakawa (1961).

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Reddish-brown to black; posterior spiracles each with 9 minute elongate bulbs (Spencer, 1976: 306).

Comments: Erigeron acer is treated as Erigeron acris (Blue Fleabane) and Erigeron acer is treated as Erigeron acris (Blue Fleabane) by Stace (2010).

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Asteraceae        
Aster       British leafminers
Aster tripolium Sea Aster British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Aster tripolium Sea Aster British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 111
Bellis       British leafminers
Bellis       Robbins, 1991: 113
Bellis perennis Daisy British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 112
Erigeron       British leafminers
Erigeron x canadensis Canadian Fleabane British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 113

Hosts elsewhere:

Asteraceae        
Aster       Spencer, 1976: 306
Aster       Spencer, 1990: 274
Aster bellidiastrum     Bladmineerders van Europa
Aster salicifolius     Bladmineerders van Europa
Aster tripolium Sea Aster British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Aster tuinasters     Bladmineerders van Europa
Bellis       Spencer, 1976: 306
Bellis       Spencer, 1990: 274
Bellis annua     Bladmineerders van Europa
Bellis perennis Daisy   Bladmineerders van Europa
Bellis sylvestris     Bladmineerders van Europa
Bellium       Spencer, 1990: 274
Bellium bellidioides False Daisy   Bladmineerders van Europa
Callistephus       Spencer, 1990: 274
Callistephus chinensis China Aster British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Conyza       Spencer, 1990: 274
Conyza canadensis Canadian Fleabane British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Dicrocephala       Spencer, 1990: 274
Erigeron       Spencer, 1976: 306
Erigeron       Spencer, 1990: 274
Erigeron acer Blue Fleabane British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Erigeron speciosus Garden Fleabane   Bladmineerders van Europa
Haplopappus       Bladmineerders van Europa
Haplopappus       Spencer, 1990: 274
Helianthus       Bladmineerders van Europa
Hysterionica       Spencer, 1990: 274
Madia       Spencer, 1990: 309
Solidago       Spencer, 1990: 274
Tithonia       Bladmineerders van Europa
Tithonia       Spencer, 1990: 316
Zinnia       Bladmineerders van Europa
Zinnia       Spencer, 1990: 316

Time of year - mines: June-July.

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread in southern England including Kent (Faversham), Oxford (Oxford, Parks), Dunbarton (Bonhill), Suffolk (Flatford), Essex (Walton-on-the-Naze) (Spencer, 1972b: 46) and Warwickshire (Hartshill) (Robbins, 1991: 113).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden (Spencer, 1976: 302), The Netherlands (Bladmineerders van Europa), Belgium (de Bruyn and von Tschirnhaus, 1991), Germany (Spencer, 1976: 562), Albania, Corsica, Czech Republic, European Turkey, French mainland, Hungary, Italian mainland, Romania, Slovakia, Spanish mainland, Switzerland and Yugoslavia (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

Also recorded in Canada (Spencer, 1969a: 149), Argentina, South Africa, India, Australia (Spencer, 1976: 306) and Papua New Guinea (Spencer, 1990).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Aster tripolium, Bellis perennis, Callistephus chinensis, Conyza canadensis, Erigeron acer (= Erigeron acris), Erigeron speciosus

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea   
Chrysocharis pentheus (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Cirrospilus vittatus Walker, 1838 Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Diglyphus isaea (Walker, 1838) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Mesopolobus incultus (Walker, 1834) Pteromalidae: Pteromalinae
Ichneumonoidea  
Dacnusa discolor (Förster, 1862) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dacnusa maculipes Thomson, 1895 Braconidae: Alysiinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
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