The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Cerodontha angulata (Loew, 1869)
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]

Agromyza angulata Loew, 1869a. Berl. ent. Z. 13(1-2): 47
Dizygomyza semiposticata Hendel, 1920. Arch. Naturgesch. 84A(7) (1918): 131
Dizygomyza semiposticata Hendel, 1920; Frick, 1957. Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 50: 202
Cerodontha (Butomyza) semiposticata Hendel, 1920; Nowakowski, 1967. Polskie Pismo ent. 37: 634
Cerodontha (Dizygomyza) angulata (Loew, 1869a); Spencer 1969a. Memoirs of the entomological Society of Canada 64: 113-4
Cerodontha (Butomyza) angulata (Loew, 1869a); Nowakowski, 1972. Polskie Pismo ent. 42(4): 752
Cerodontha (Dizygomyza) angulata (Loew, 1869a); Spencer 1972b. Handbk. ident. Br. Ins.: 96 (figs 331-2), 100
Cerodontha (Butomyza) angulata (Loew, 1869a); Spencer, 1976. Fauna ent. Scand. 5(1): 204-5, figs 354-6.
Cerodontha (Butomyza) angulata (Loew, 1869a); Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the world Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 347, 348 (fig. 1317), 351, 371, 380.


Mine of Cerodontha angulata on Carex pendula. Image: Willem Ellis (Source: Bladmineerders van Europa)
Mine of Cerodontha angulata on Carex pendula
Image: © Willem Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa)

Leaf-mine: A long yellowish green leaf-mine. Pupation external, puparium frequently adhering to leaf (Spencer, 1972b: 100; Spencer, 1976: 205).

Long, rather broad corridor, about halfway along the leaf blade. Frass in a few large, black lumps. Puparium formed now in, then outside the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

The larva is described by de Meijere (1926, as semiposticata), Nowakowski (1973) and Dempewolf (2001: 113). The larva is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Oval, dark brown, without conspicuous segmentation, frequently adhering to leaf (Spencer, 1972b: 96 (fig. 331), 100; Spencer, 1976: 205, figs 355-6). Yellow to black-brown (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Cerodontha angulata puparium
Cerodontha angulata puparium
Image: © Willem Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa)

Comments: Carex ovalis is treated as Carex leporina (Oval Sedge) by Stace (2010).

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Cyperaceae        
Carex hirta Hairy Sedge British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1991: 133
Carex otrubae False Fox-sedge British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1991: 133
Carex paniculata Greater Tussock-sedge British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1991: 133
Carex pendula Pendulous Sedge British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Pitkin & Plant, as Butomyza angulata
Carex pendula Pendulous Sedge British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Carex pendula Pendulous Sedge British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 122
Scirpus       Pitkin & Plant

Hosts elsewhere:

Cyperaceae        
Carex       Spencer, 1976: 205
Carex       Spencer, 1990: 351
Carex       Dempewolf, 2001: 113
Carex acuta Slender Tufted-sedge British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Carex acutiformis Lesser Pond-sedge British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Carex flacca Glaucous Sedge British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Carex flava Large Yellow-sedge British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Carex hirta Hairy Sedge British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Carex otrubae False Fox-sedge British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Carex ovalis Oval Sedge British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Carex paniculata Greater Tussock-sedge British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Carex pendula Pendulous Sedge British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Carex pilosa     Bladmineerders van Europa
Carex pseudocyperus Cyperus Sedge British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Carex remota Remote Sedge British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Carex riparia Greater Pond-sedge British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Carex sylvatica Wood-sedge British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Carex vesicaria Bladder-sedge British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Carex vulpina True Fox-sedge   Bladmineerders van Europa
Scirpus       Spencer, 1990: 351
Scirpus sylvaticus Wood-sedge   Spencer, 1976: 205
Scirpus sylvaticus Wood-sedge   Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - mines: September, November.

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread in the southern Britain including London (Hampstead), Middlesex (Scratch Wood), Dorset (Lyme Regis), Glam. (Spencer, 1972b: 100), Warwickshire (Coventry) (Robbins, 1991: 133) and Cardiganshire, East Sutherland, Leicestershire and Surrey (NBN Atlas).

Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Denmark, Sweden, Norway (Spencer, 1976: 205), The Netherlands, Luxembourg (Bladmineerders van Europa), Belgium (Scheirs, de Bruyn and von Tschirnhaus, 1995), Germany (Spencer, 1976: 554; Dempewolf, 2001: 113), Austria, Czech Republic, Estonia, European Turkey, French mainland, Hungary, Italian mainland, Lithuania, Poland, Romania and Slovakia (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

Also recorded in Canada and the U.S.A. (Spencer, 1976: 205).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Carex acuta, Carex acutiformis, Carex flacca, Carex flava, Carex hirta, Carex otrubae, Carex ovalis, (= Carex leporina), Carex paniculata, Carex pendula, Carex pseudocyperus, Carex remota, Carex riparia, Carex sylvatica, Carex vesicaria, Carex vulpina, Scirpus sylvaticus

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea   
Chrysocharis polyzo (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Pediobius metallicus (Nees, 1834) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Halticoptera aenea (Walker, 1833) Pteromalidae: Miscogastrinae
Halticoptera circulus (Walker, 1833) [Not in UCD, see Yu, 2012] Pteromalidae: Miscogastrinae
Ichneumonoidea  
Chorebus humeralis Griffiths, 1968 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Chorebus transversus (Nixon, 1954) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dapsilarthra sylvia (Haliday, 1839) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Eurytenes abnormis (Wesmael, 1835) Braconidae: Opiinae
Opius pallipes Wesmael, 1835 Braconidae: Opiinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
Find using Google
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Find images using Google


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