The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Cerodontha caricicola (Hering, 1926)
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]

Dizygomyza caricicola Hering, 1926c. Z. Morph. ökol. Tiere 5(3): 483
Dizygomyza Hering, 1937c. Blattminen Mittel- und Nordeuropas Lief 5, 6: 570, as sönderupi
Cerodontha (Dizygomyza) caricicola (Hering, 1926c); Griffiths, 1964. Ent. Meddr. 32: 399
Cerodontha (Dizygomyza) caricicola (Hering, 1926c); Nowakowski, 1967.Polskie Pismo ent. 37: 643
Dizygomyza soenderupi Hering, 1937c; Nowakowski, 1967. Polskie Pismo ent. 37: 643
Cerodontha (Dizygomyza) caricicola (Hering, 1926c); Nowakowski, 1972. Polskie Pismo ent. 42(4): 760
Cerodontha (Dizygomyza) caricicola (Hering, 1926c); Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 101
Cerodontha (Dizygomyza) caricicola (Hering, 1926)c; Spencer, 1976. Fauna ent. Scand. 5(1): 220, figs 379-80.
Cerodontha (Dizygomyza) caricicola (Hering, 1926c); Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the world Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 349, 350 (fig. 1327), 351, 371.


Leaf-mine: A long narrow greenish/yellowish mine. Pupation in leaf at end of mine (Spencer, 1976: 220).

Long upper-surface corridor, mainly in the top half of the blade. The mine descends, but changes direction a few times (up, down, up). Frass in one big lump. Puparium in the mine, fastened ventrally in the mine with dried frass (Bladmineerders van Europa).

The mine is a long gallery which is formed mostly in the apical parts of the leaf (British leafminers).

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall. The larvae lie on their sides within the mine and use their pick-like mouthparts to feed on plant tissue.

The larva is described by de Meijere (1938, as sönderupi), Beri (1971a) and Nowakowski (1973).

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Can be yellowish but is more normally dark brown; posterior spiracles are on a low projection directed dorsally above the anus each with one long curving bulb and two smaller ones folded around its base (Spencer, 1976: 220-1, fig. 380).

Comments: Carex ovalis is treated as Carex leporina (Oval Sedge) by Stace (2010).

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Cyperaceae        
Carex acutiformis Lesser Pond-sedge British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 122
Carex acutiformis Lesser Pond-sedge British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Carex pendula Pendulous Sedge British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Carex pendula Pendulous Sedge British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Carex pendula Pendulous Sedge British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1991: 133
Carex pendula Pendulous Sedge British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 122
Carex pseudocyperus Cyperus Sedge British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Carex pseudocyperus Cyperus Sedge British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 122

Hosts elsewhere:

Cyperaceae        
Carex       Spencer, 1990: 351
Carex       Spencer, 1990: 351
Carex arenaria Sand Sedge British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Carex digitata Fingered Sedge British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Carex flacca Glaucous Sedge British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Carex hirta Hairy Sedge British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Carex muricata Large-fruited Prickly-sedge   Bladmineerders van Europa
Carex ovalis Oval Sedge British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Carex pairaei     Bladmineerders van Europa
Carex pendula Pendulous Sedge British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Carex pilosa     Bladmineerders van Europa
Carex pilulifera Pill Sedge British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Carex remota Remote Sedge British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Carex sylvatica Wood-sedge British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - mines: February.

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread in Britain including London (Hampstead), Sussex (Rusper), Middlesex (Scratch Wood), Oxford (Bagley Wood) (Spencer, 1972b: 101), Surrey (Ash Vale) (British leafminers) and Warwickshire (Little Packington) (Robbins, 1991: 133); Cambridgeshire and North Ebudes (VC104) (NBN Atlas).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Germany, Poland, Estonia, Denmark (Spencer, 1976: 220), The Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg (Bladmineerders van Europa), Germany (Spencer, 1976: 554), Czech Republic, ? Finland, French mainland, Hungary, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia and ? Sweden (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Carex acutiformis, Carex arenaria, Carex digitata, Carex flacca, Carex hirta, Carex muricata, Carex ovalis (= Carex leporina), Carex pendula, Carex pilulifera, Carex remota, Carex sylvatica

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea   
Chrysocharis polyzo (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis pubens Delucchi, 1954 Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Cyrtogaster vulgaris Walker, 1833 Pteromalidae: Pteromalinae
Ichneumonoidea  
Chorebus merellus (Nixon, 1937) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Chorebus vernalis Griffiths, 1968 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dacnusa maculipes Thomson, 1895 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dapsilarthra sylvia (Haliday, 1839) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Grammospila rufiventris (Nees, 1812) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Apodesmia posticatae (Fischer, 1957) Braconidae: Opiinae
Apodesmia similis (Szépligeti, 1898) Braconidae: Opiinae
Opius ambiguus Wesmael, 1835 Braconidae: Opiinae
Opius soenderupianus Fischer, 1967 Braconidae: Opiinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
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