The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

Join us on Facebook

Cerodontha muscina (Meigen, 1830)
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]

Agromyza muscina Meigen, 1830. Syst. Beschr. 6: 177
Dizygomyza (Poemyza) muscina (Meigen, 1830); Hendel, 1931. Fliegen palaearkt. Reg. 6(2): 44
Cerodontha (Poemyza) muscina (Meigen, 1830);Nowakowski, 1967. Polskie Pismo ent. 37: 649. Cerodontha (Poemyza) muscina (Meigen, 1830); Nowakowski, 1972. Polskie Pismo ent. 42(4): 745
Cerodontha (Poemyza) muscina (Meigen, 1830); Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 102
Cerodontha (Poemyza) muscina (Meigen, 1830); Spencer, 1976. Fauna ent. Scand. 5(1): 191-2, figs 335-6.
Cerodontha (Poemyza) muscina (Meigen, 1830); Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the world Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 354, 355, 356, 367, 368 (fig. 1383), 369.


Leaf-mine: Broad lower surface mine which generally starts at the leaf apex.The mine is somewhat irregular in depth. Frass in irregular black-green, frequently melted grains, mostly along the edges of the mine. Larva solitary. Pupation generally internal (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

The larva is described by de Meijere (1928) and Nowakowski (1973).

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Flat, deeply segmented, shining metallic bluish-black; posterior spiracles projecting through the epidermis, widely separated, each on a conical projection with 3 bulbs (Spencer, 1976: 192, 193 (fig. 336)).

Metallic black with a violet or blue shine, flattened, and with the intersegmental constrictions fairly deep. Rear spiracula on two conical, divergent protuberances, drawn out in the shape of a dagger; they penetrate the epidermis. The spiracula with their base look like a capital M (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Comments: Festuca gigantea is treated as Schedonorus gigantea (Giant Fescue) by Stace (2010).

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Poaceae        
Calamagrostis       Spencer, 1972b: 123
Calamagrostis canescens Purple Small-reed   Spencer, 1972b: 123
Elymus repens Common couch British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1991: 136
Hierochloe odorata Holy-grass British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 123

Hosts elsewhere:

Poaceae        
Bromus       Bladmineerders van Europa
Bromus       Spencer, 1990: 355
Calamagrostis epigejos Wood Small-reed British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Dactylis       Spencer, 1976: 192
Dactylis       Bladmineerders van Europa
Dactylis       Spencer, 1990: 355
Dactylis glomerata Cock's-foot British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1976: 192
Echinochloa       Spencer, 1990: 357
Echinochloa crus-galli Cockspur British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Ehrhata       Spencer, 1990: 354
Elymus repens Common couch British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Elytrigia       Spencer, 1990: 356
Festuca       Spencer, 1976: 192
Festuca       Spencer, 1990: 355
Festuca gigantea Giant Fescue British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Festuca ovina Sheep's-fescue British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Hierochloe odorata Holy-grass British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1990: 354
Holcus       Spencer, 1976: 192
Holcus       Spencer, 1990: 354
Holcus mollis Creeping Soft-grass   Bladmineerders van Europa
Hordeum       Spencer, 1990: 356
Hordeum murinum Wall Barley British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Lolium       Spencer, 1990: 355
Lolium multiflorum Italian Rye-grass British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Milium       Spencer, 1976: 192
Milium       Spencer, 1990: 356
Milium effusum Wood Millet British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Phalaris       Bladmineerders van Europa
Poa       Spencer, 1976: 192
Poa       Spencer, 1990: 355
Poa annua Annual Meadow-grass British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Poa nemoralis Wood Meadow-grass   Bladmineerders van Europa
Secale       Spencer, 1990: 356

Time of year - mines: June-October (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Time of year - adults: April, June-July.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread and not uncommon. Kent (Maidstone), Surrey (Colley Hill), Norfolk (Middleton), Merioneth (Ganllwyd), Inverness (Aviemore), Aberdeen (Den of Pitlurgh), Elgin (Culbin Sands), Dunbarton (Bonhill) (Spencer, 1972b: 102), Warwickshire (Coventry, Holbrooks) (Robbins, 1991: 136); Cambridgeshire (VC29), Glamorganshire (VC41), Isle of Wight (VC10), North Hampshire (VC12), Stafford and West Kent (NBN Atlas).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Denmark, Finland, probably Finland and Sweden (Spencer, 1976: 192), The Netherlands, Belgium (de Meijere, 1924; Scheirs, de Bruyn and von Tschirnhaus, 1995); Luxembourg (Bladmineerders van Europa), Germany (Spencer, 1976: 554), Austria, Belarus, Czech Republic, Estonia, French mainland, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia, Spanish mainland, Switzerland and Yugoslavia (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

Also recorded Canada and the U.S.A. (Spencer, 1976: 192).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Calamagrostis canescens, Calamagrostis epigejos, Dactylis glomerata, Echinochloa crus-galli, Elymus repens, Festuca gigantea, Festuca ovina, Hierochloe odorata, Holcus mollis, Hordeum murinum, Lolium multiflorum, Milium effusum, Poa annua, Poa nemoralis

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Ichneumonoidea  
Chorebus agraules (Nixon, 1945) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dacnusa maculipes Thomson, 1895 Braconidae: Alysiinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
Find using Google
Find using Google Scholar
Find images using Google


XHTML Validator Last updated 20-Apr-2017 Brian Pitkin Top of page