The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Chromatomyia aprilina (Goureau, 1851)
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]

Phytomyza aprilina Goureau, 1851. Annls. Soc. ent. Fr. (2) 9: 145
Phytomyza aprilina Goureau, 1851; Spencer, 1969c. Beitr. Ent. 19 (1-2): 19
Phytomyza aprilina Goureau, 1851; Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 97
Chromatomyia aprilina (Goureau, 1851); Griffiths, 1974. Quaestiones ent. 10: 42.
Phytomyza aprilina Goureau, 1851; Spencer, 1976. Fauna ent. Scand. 5(1): 378-80, figs 658-60.
Chromatomyia aprilina (Goureau, 1851); Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the world Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 238, 240, 241 (fig. 906).
Phytomyza aprilina Goureau, 1851; Winkler et al. 2009. Syst. ent. 34: 260-292.


Leaf-mine: The very first part of the mine is a quite inconspicuous, lower-surface epidermal corridor, that ends upon the midrib. Then the larva bores in the midrib, from where it makes long upper-surface corridors. Often the latest corridor that is made is much longer than the others, and follows the leaf outline in a loose loop. Frass in long strings at the extreme side of the mine. Pupation in the mine, in a lower-surface puparium chamber (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Initially on the mid-rib from which there may be several short narrow galleries into the leaf. In the main gallery there may be alternate lower surface and upper surface stretches. Frass in conspicuous long streaks (British leafminers).

A winter form not associated with the midrib and with a mine that meanders thoughout the leaf probably represents this species. Frass in long strings at the extreme side of the mine. Pupation in the mine, in a lower-surface puparium chamber

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

The larva is described by de Meijere (1934 and 1938), Griffiths (1974) and in Bladmineerders van Europa.

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Pale green, white when empty (Spencer, 1972b: 97). Anterior spiracles penetrate the epidermis (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Caprifoliaceae        
Leycesteria       British leafminers Facebook Group
Lonicera       Mines in BMNH
Lonicera       Robbins, 1983: 25
Lonicera periclymenum Honeysuckle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1991: 107
Lonicera periclymenum Honeysuckle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bland, 1994
Lonicera periclymenum Honeysuckle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Lonicera periclymenum Honeysuckle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Lonicera periclymenum Honeysuckle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 110
Symphoricarpos albus Snowberry   Mines in BMNH, as Symphoricarpos rivularis

Hosts elsewhere:

Caprifoliaceae        
Lonicera       Spencer, 1976: 380
Lonicera       Spencer, 1990: 240
Lonicera alpigena Alpine Honeysuckle   Bladmineerders van Europa
Lonicera biflora     Bladmineerders van Europa
Lonicera caerulea Blue-berried Honeysuckle   Bladmineerders van Europa
Lonicera caprifolium Perfoliate Honeysuckle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Lonicera etrusca Etruscan Honeysuckle   Bladmineerders van Europa
Lonicera implexa     Bladmineerders van Europa
Lonicera involucrata Californian Honeysuckle  

Bladmineerders van Europa, as Lonicera ledebouri

Lonicera macki     Bladmineerders van Europa
Lonicera nigra     Bladmineerders van Europa
Lonicera periclymenum Honeysuckle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Lonicera tatarica Tartarian Honeysuckle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Lonicera xylosteum Fly Honeysuckle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Lonicera xylosteum Fly Honeysuckle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1976: 380
Symphoricarpos albus Snowberry   Bladmineerders van Europa
Symphoricarpos occidentalis     Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - mines: June-October.

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread, particularly in west and north of Britain including Surrey (Chiddingfold), Devon (Wonwell), Cornwall (Portleven), South Wales, Northumberland (Spencer, 1972b: 97), Rum (Bland, in Whiteley, 1994), Warwickshire (Coventry, Keresley, Kingsbury and Tile Hill) (Robbins, 1991: 107), Hampshire (Fleet) (British leafminers); East Ross (VC106), Edinburgh, Glamorganshire (VC41), Huntingdonshire (VC31), Mid-west Yorkshire (VC64), Pembrokeshire (VC45), Shropshire (VC40), South-east Yorkshire (VC61), Staffordshire (VC39), West Kent (VC16) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN Atlas).

Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland: Co. Clare (Poulavallen), Co. Cork (Bantry), Co. Down (Rostrevor), Co. Galway (Clifden) and Co. Kerry (Killarney) (Spencer, 1972b: 97).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in western and south western Europe, particularly coastal areas, from England to Spain and Portugal, including Norway (Spencer, 1976: 379), The Netherlands, Luxembourg (Bladmineerders van Europa), Corsica, Czech Republic, French mainland, Germany and Italian mainland (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

Also recorded in Tangiers and Morocco (Spencer, 1990).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Lonicera involucrata, Lonicera periclymenum, Lonicera tatarica, Lonicera xylosteum, Symphoricarpos albus

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea   
Chrysocharis gemma (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis pubicornis (Zetterstedt, 1838) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis viridis (Nees, 1934) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Closterocerus trifasciatus Westwood, 1833 Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Ichneumonoidea  
Chorebus sylvestris Griffiths, 1967 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Coloneura stylata Förster, 1862 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Grammospila rufiventris (Nees, 1812) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Colastes braconius Haliday, 1833 Braconidae: Exothecinae
Apodesmia similis (Szépligeti, 1898) Braconidae: Opiinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
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