The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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LEYCESTERIA. Himalayan Honeysuckle. [Caprifoliaceae]


Only one species of Leycesteria is recorded in Britain, the introduced Himalayan Honeysuckle (L. formosa).

Six British miners are recorded on Leycesteria.



Key for the identification of the known mines of British
Diptera recorded on Leycesteria


Note: Diptera larvae may live in a corridor mine, a corridor-blotch mine, or a blotch mine, but never in a case, a rolled or folded leaf, a tentiform mine or sandwiched between two more or less circular leaf sections in later instars. Pupation never in a cocoon. All mining Diptera larvae are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall. The larvae lie on their sides within the mine and use their pick-like mouthparts to feed on plant tissue. In some corridor miners frass may lie in two rows on alternate sides of the mine. In order to vacate the mine the fully grown larva cuts an exit slit, which is usually semi-circular (see Liriomyza huidobrensis video). The pupa is formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

See Key to non-Diptera.


1a > Leaf-miner: Mine, at least initially, star shaped. Pupation internal.

2

1b > Leaf-miner: Mine long and often white and sinuous. Pupation external.

3

2a > Leaf-miner: Mine star shaped when small, sometimes with a longer linear section, later an irregular brownish blotch. Pupation internal (Spencer, 1976: 466).

Mine not associated with the midrib, stellate, with a large number of short upper-surface corridors. The mine looks greyish and is inconspicuous. Frass in discrete grains. One, sometimes two larvae in a mine. Pupation within the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Forms an upper surface mine which is normally blotchy. The young mine is stellate. The initial mine is purple in colour - turning brown as it ages (British leafminers).

Chromatomyia periclymeni puparium
Chromatomyia periclymeni puparium
Image: © Willem Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa)

On Lonicera periclymenum, Lonicera xylosteum, Leycesteria formosa and Symphoricarpos albus in Britain and additional other species of Lonicera elsewhere.

Chromatomyia periclymeni (Meijere, 1924) [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

2b> Leaf-miner: The very first part of the mine is a quite inconspicuous, lower-surface epidermal corridor, that ends upon the midrib. Then the larva bores in the midrib, from where it makes long upper-surface corridors. Often the latest corridor that is made is much longer than the others, and follows the leaf outline in a loose loop. Frass in long strings at the extreme side of the mine. Pupation in the mine, in a lower-surface puparium chamber (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Initially on the mid-rib from which there may be several short narrow galleries into the leaf. In the main gallery there may be alternate lower surface and upper surface stretches. Frass in conspicuous long streaks (British leafminers).

A winter form not associated with the midrib and with a mine that meanders thoughout the leaf probably represents this species. Frass in long strings at the extreme side of the mine. Pupation in the mine, in a lower-surface puparium chamber

On Lonicera periclymenum, Symphoricarpos albus and Leycesteria in Britain and additional species of Lonicera and Symphoricarpos elsewhere. Widespread in Britain. Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland. Widespread in western and south western Europe.

Chromatomyia aprilina (Goureau, 1851) [Agromyzidae.

3a > Leaf-miner: A long white mine. Pupation external (Spencer, 1972b: 62 (fig. 209), 65, as lonicerae).

Strongly widening, upper-surface, unbranched corridor; its first section usually follows the leaf margin for some distance. Pupation outside the mine; exit slit in upper epidermis (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Leaf mine is formed in the young tender leaf. Larva forming long white mine which widens (British leafminers).

Aulagromyza cornigera puparium
Aulagromyza cornigera larva, lateral
Image: © Willem Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa)
Aulagromyza cornigera puparium
Aulagromyza cornigera puparium
Image: © Willem Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa)

On Lonicera periclymenum, Leycesteria formosa and Symphoricarpos albus in Britain and Lonicera and Symphoricarpos, but not yet on Leycesteria, elsewhere. Britain and continental Europe.

Aulagromyza cornigera Griffiths, 1973 [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

3c > Leaf-miner: Mines similar to A. hendeliana but darker (British leafminers), filled centrally with dark-green frass (Spencer, 1976: 318).

Little widening, upper-surface corridor, generally unbranched and not associated with the leaf margin. Frass in a broad green band with scattered dark granules, sometimes locally with ill-defined strikes. Pupation outside the mine; exit slit in upper epidermis (Bladmineerders van Europa).

On Leycesteria formosa, Lonicera etrusca and Symphoricarpos albus in Britain and additional species of Lonicera, but not yet on Leycesteria, elsewhere. Recorded as new to Britain from Hants and subsequently recorded from Kent. Widespread in continental Europe.

Aulagromyza luteoscutella (de Meijere, 1924) [Diptera: Agromyzidae].



Key for the identification of the known mines of British
non-Diptera recorded on Leycesteria

Note: The larvae of mining Coleoptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera may live in a corridor mine, a corridor-blotch mine, a blotch mine, a case, a rolled or folded leaf, a tentiform mine or sandwiched between two more or less circular leaf sections in later instars. Larva may pupate in a silk cocoon. The larva may have six legs (although they may be reduced or absent), a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding). Larvae of Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera usually also have abdominal legs (see examples). Frass, if present, never in two rows. Unless feeding externally from within a case the larva usually vacates the mine by chewing an exit hole. Pupa with visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).


1a > Leaf-miner: The mine is large, occupying most of leaf. The lower epidermis with several strong creases (British leafminers). Lower-surface, white, inflated tentiform mine, that may occupy the entire leaf. The mine causes the leaf to roll lengthwise (the folds in the lower epidermis run from leaf base to tip). Pupa in a tough, papery cocoon; in fresh mines its colour is olive green, later it changes into pale brown (Bladmineerders van Europa).

On Leycesteria, Lonicera and Symphoricarpos in Britain and Lonicera and Symphoricarpos, but not yet on Leycesteria, elsewhere. Widespread in Britain and continental Europe. Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland.

Phyllonorycter emberizaepennella (Bouché, 1834) [Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae].

1b > Leaf-miner: The mine is usually underside, often twisting leaf into a cone (British leafminers). The mines can be quite abundant where it is found (UKMoths). Lower surface tentiform mine between leaf margin and midrib; the mine contracts diagonally, causing the leaf to roll transversely or into a pepper box (Bladmineerders van Europa).

On Leycesteria, Lonicera and Symphoricarpos in Britain and Lonicera and Symphoricarpos, but not yet on Leycesteria, elsewhere. Widespread in Britain, Ireland and continental Europe.

Phyllonorycter trifasciella (Haworth, 1828) [Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae].



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