The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Chromatomyia milii (Kaltenbach, 1864)
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]


Phytomyza milii Kaltenbach, 1864. Verh. naturh. Ver. preuss. Rheinl. 21: 248
Phytomyza milii Kaltenbach, 1864; Hendel, 1935. Fliegen palaearkt. Reg. 6(2): 431
Phytomyza intermedia Spencer, 1957a. Ent. Gaz. 8: 21-2
Phytomyza milii Kaltenbach, 1864; Griffiths, 1964. Ent. Meddr. 32: 405
Phytomyza milii Kaltenbach, 1864; Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 92, 93 (figs 322-3) 94, 95
Phytomyza milii Kaltenbach, 1864; Spencer, 1976. Fauna ent. Scand. 5(1): 447-9, figs 762-9.
Chromatomyia milii (Kaltenbach, 1864); Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the World Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 356, 377, 378 (figs 1431-2), 405.


Mine of Chromatomyia milii on Holcus lanatus. Image: Willem Ellis (Source: Bladmineerders van Europa)
Mine of Chromatomyia milii on Holcus lanatus
Image: © Willem Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa)

Leaf-mine: A substantial linear mine. Pupation internal; posterior spiracles projecting through the epidermis (Spencer, 1976: 449).

Elongated, shallow, upper-surface or lower-surface blotch, not infrequently several in one leaf. Frass in strings or pearl chains. Pupation within the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa)

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

The larva is described by de Meijere (1926), Dempewolf (2001: 204) and illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.

Chromatomyia milii larva,  lateral
Chromatomyia milii larva, lateral
Image: © Willem Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa)

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Posterior spiracles elongated (Spencer, 1972b: 95). The bifid anterior spiracles of the puparium penetrate the epidermis; the posterior spiracula are dagger-shaped, elongated and curved, and are anchored in the leaf tissue (Bladmineerders van Europa)

Chromatomyia milii larva,  lateral
Chromatomyia milii larva, dorsal
Image: © Willem Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa)

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Poaceae        
Hierochloe       Spencer, 1972b: 123
Holcus mollis Creeping Soft-grass   Rotheray, 1987
Hordeum       Spencer, 1972b: 95, 124
Hordeum vulgare Six-rowed Barley   Spencer, 1972b: 124
Milium       Robbins, 1991: 141
Milium effusum Wood Millet British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Milium effusum Wood Millet British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 95, 124
Poa annua Annual Meadow-grass British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 124
Poa trivialis Rough Meadow-grass British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 124

Hosts elsewhere:

Poaceae        
Agrostis       Spencer, 1990: 354
Agrostis       Bladmineerders van Europa
Avena       Bladmineerders van Europa
Brachypodium sylvaticum False Brome British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Catabrosa aquatica Whorl-grass British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Festuca       Bladmineerders van Europa
Hierochloe       Spencer, 1976: 447
? Hierochloe       Spencer, 1990: 354
Hierochloe odorata Holy-grass British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Holcus       Spencer, 1990: 354
Holcus lanatus Yorkshire-fog British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Holcus mollis Creeping Soft-grass   Bladmineerders van Europa
Hordeum       Spencer, 1976: 447
Hordeum       Bladmineerders van Europa
Lolium       Bladmineerders van Europa
Milium       Spencer, 1990: 356
Milium effusum Wood Millet British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1976: 447
Milium effusum Wood Millet British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Poa       Spencer, 1976: 447
Poa       Spencer, 1990: 355
Poa annua Annual Meadow-grass British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Poa compressa Flattened Meadow-grass British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Poa pratensis Smooth Meadow-grass British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Poa trivialis Rough Meadow-grass British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - mines: July.

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread and abundant in south and in Scotland and almost certainly throughout British Isles (Spencer, 1972b: 95). Records include Warwickshire (Coventry, Holbrooks) (Robbins, 1991: 141); Caernarvonshire (VC49), Cambridgeshire (VC29), Carmarthenshire (VC44), East Cornwall (VC2), East Gloucestershire (VC33), East Kent (VC15), East Norfolk (VC27), East Suffolk (VC25), East Sussex (VC14), Glamorganshire (VC41), Herefordshire (VC36), Isle of Wight (VC10), North Devon (VC4), North Somerset (VC6), Shropshire (VC40), South Somerset (VC5), South Wiltshire (VC8), South-west Yorkshire (VC63), Staffordshire (VC39), Surrey (VC17), West Gloucestershire (VC34), West Kent (VC16), West Norfolk (VC28), West Suffolk (VC26), West Sussex (VC13), Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN Gateway).

Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland: Co. Clare, Co. Galway and Co. Mayo (Spencer, 1972b: 95).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread from Morocco through central and northern Europe including Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden, Iceland, Faroe Is. (Spencer, 1976: 447), The Netherlands, Luxembourg (Bladmineerders van Europa), Belgium (de Bruyn and von Tschirnhaus, 1991), Germany (Spencer, 1976: 574), Belarus, Czech Republic, Estonia, European Turkey, Iceland, Italian mainland, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia, Spanish mainland and Switzerland (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

Also recorded in Canada (Spencer, 1969a: 255; Spencer, 1976: 447).

NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:

Catabrosa aquatica, Hierochloe odorata, Holcus lanatus, Holcus mollis, Hordeum vulgare, Milium effusum, Poa annua, Poa trivialis

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea   
Chrysocharis entedonoides (Walker, 1872) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis pentheus (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis pubens Delucchi, 1954 Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis pubicornis (Zetterstedt, 1838) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Pediobius metallicus (Nees, 1834) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Cirrospilus diallus Walker, 1838 Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Cirrospilus vittatus Walker, 1838 Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Diglyphus minoeus (Walker, 1838) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Hemiptarsenus unguicellus (Zetterstedt, 1838) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Pnigalio soemius (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Miscogaster maculata Walker, 1833 Pteromalidae: Miscogastrinae
Seladerma tarsale (Walker, 1833) Pteromalidae: Miscogastrinae
Cyrtogaster vulgaris Walker, 1833 Pteromalidae: Pteromalinae
Ichneumonoidea  
Chorebus aphantus (Marshall, 1896) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dacnusa areolaris (Nees, 1811) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dacnusa maculipes Thomson, 1895 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Exotela gilvipes (Haliday, 1839) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Apodesmia similis (Szépligeti, 1898) Braconidae: Opiinae
Opius ambiguus Wesmael, 1835 Braconidae: Opiinae
Phaedrotoma aethiops (Haliday, 1837) Braconidae: Opiinae
Phaedrotoma rex (Fischer, 1958) Braconidae: Opiinae

External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Gateway
NHM UK Checklist
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