The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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HORDEUM. Barleys. [Poaceae]


Twenty-three species of Hordeum are recorded in Britain. These include the native Sea Barley (H. marinum), Meadow Barley (H. secalinum), Six-rowed Barley (H. vulgare) and Wall Barley (H. murinum).

Twenty-five British miners are recorded on Hordeum.

A key to the European miners recorded on Hordeum is provided in Bladmineerders van Europa.

Nearly 100 British miners or possible miners are recorded on grasses in Britain.

It is recommended that adults of all miners on grasses be reared to be certain of their identity.

Meadow Barley - Hordeum secalinum. Image: © Linda Pitkin
Meadow Barley
Hordeum secalinum



Key for the identification of the known mines of British
insects (Diptera and non-Diptera) recorded on Hordeum


1# > Leaf-mine: Details unknown.

On Avena, Deschampsia and Poa (Spencer, 1990), although it is not clear whether any of these are British host records. Widepread in Britain. Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland. Widespread in continental Europe

Liriomyza orbona (Meigen, 1830) [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

1# > Leaf-miner: Details unknown. Probably the larva mines for a few days only, and afterwards lives as a stem borer (Bladmineerders van Europa).

On Poaceae in Britain, On Bromus, Elytrigia, Hordeum, Melica, Secale and Triticum elswhere. Widespread in Britain and continetal Europe. Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland

Ochsenheimeria urella Fischer von Röslerstamm, 1842 [Lepidoptera: Ypsolophidae].

1a > Leaf miner/Stem borer: The larvae mine the stems of various coarse grasses (UKMoths; Plant in Pitkin & Plant, 2005). The larva mines just a few days in the leaf, then continues as a stem borer on the lower part of the stem. They regularly move to a new stem. The central leaves of the infested plants wither and die (Bladmineerders van Europa).

On Dactylis and Poa, but not yet on Hordeum, in Britain and Alopecurus, Avena, Bromus; Dactylis, Hordeum, Poa, Secale and Triticum elsewhere. Widespread in England and Wales. Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland. Widespread in continental Europe.

Ochsenheimeria taurella (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775) [Lepidoptera: Ypsolophidae].

1b > Leaf-mine: Blotch, near the leaf tip, containing one or two larvae; pupation outside the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Hosts in Britain unknown. On Hordeum, Secale and Triticum elsewhere. Added to British checklist by Cole in Chandler (1998: 136). Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Martinez in Fauna Europaea). Widespread in continental Europe

Agromyza luteitarsis (Rondani, 1875) [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

1c > Leaf miner: Larvae feed singly, forming an upper surface linear-blotch mine. Pupation either internal or external, with the puparium loosely glued to the leaf (Spencer, 1976: 91).

Oviposition near the leaf margin, at some distance from the leaf tip. From there develops an upper-surface corridor-blotch. At first the mine ascends as a narrow corridor towards the leaf tip, then the direction turns and the mine, steadily widening, descends in the direction of the leaf base. Frass irregular, in rather coarse grains. Larva solitary. Pupation mostly outside the mine; in that case the puparium often sticks to the leaf (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Mine of Agromyza albipennis on Phalaris arundinacea. Image: © Willem Ellis (Source: Bladmineerders en plantengallen van Europa)
Mine of Agromyza albipennis on Phalaris arundinacea
Image: © Willem Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa)

On Arrhenatherum, Brachypodium, Bromus, Dactylis, Glyceria, Holcus, Hordeum, Milium, Phalaris and Poa in Britain and additional grasses elsewhere. Widespread and common in Britain. Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland. Very common in western Europe and recorded in Canada.

Agromyza albipennis Meigen, 1830 [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

1d > Leaf miner: Leaf-mine normally short and broad (Spencer, 1976: 97). According to Hering (1957) initially the larva does not feed towards the apex of the leaf. Pupation external (Spencer, 1976: 97).

The shallow, whtish mine starts (not very close to the base of the lamina) as a fine ascending corridor. This is overrun when the direction alternates, and the mine quickly widens. The final mine is characteristically short; often not the full width of the leaf is used. Frass in big black grains, never greenish. Pupation outside the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).

On Avena, Hordeum and Secale in Britain and in addition on Elytrigia and Triticum elsewhere. Widespread, but local, in Britain. Common and Widespread in continental Europe. Also recorded in Canada and America.

Agromyza ambigua Fallén, 1823 [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

1e > Leaf miner: A substantial linear mine. Pupation internal; posterior spiracles projecting through the epidermis (Spencer, 1976: 449).

Elongated, shallow, upper-surface or lower-surface blotch, not infrequently several in one leaf. Frass in strings or pearl chains. Pupation within the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa)

Mine of Chromatomyia milii on Holcus lanatus. Image: © Willem Ellis (Source: Bladmineerders en plantengallen van Europa)
Mine of Chromatomyia milii on Holcus lanatus
Image: © Willem Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa)
Chromatomyia milii larva,  lateral
Chromatomyia milii larva, lateral
Image: © Willem Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa)
Chromatomyia milii larva,  lateral
Chromatomyia milii larva, dorsal
Image: © Willem Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa)

On Hierochloe, Holcus, Hordeum, Milium and Poa in Britain and additional genera of grasses elsewhere. Almost certainly widespread throughout the British Isles. Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland. Widespread from Morocco through central and northern Europe.

Chromatomyia milii (Kaltenbach, 1864) [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

1f > Leaf-miner: Long, narrow, whitish mine. Pupation internal (Spencer, 1976: 453); anterior spiracles projecting through the epidermis.

Whitish, upper-surface, rather narrow corridor with comparatively large frass grains that are laying further apart than their diameter. Pupation within the mine. The anterior spiracles of the orange-brown puparium penetrate the epidermis (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Chromatomyia nigra larva,  lateral
Chromatomyia nigra larva, lateral
Image: © Willem Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa)
Orchestes fagi larva,  dorsal
Chromatomyia nigra pupa, lateral
Image: © Willem Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa)

On numerous genera of grasses, but not yet on Hordeum, in Britain. Widespread and common throughout British Isles and much of Europe. Also recorded in Canada, western U.S.A. and Japan.

Chromatomyia nigra (Meigen, 1830) [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

1g > Leaf-miner: Narrow whitish mine, with frass in distinct black lumps. Pupation internal (Spencer, 1976: 422).

Whitish, upper-surface, descending corridor, about halfway up the blade. Frass in distinct black grains that are lying further apart than their diameter. Pupation in the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).

On Arrhenatherum, Holcus, Milium and Phleum, but not yet on Hordeum, in Britain and additional grasses elsewhere. Recorded in Scotland and Widespread in continental Europe. Also recorded in Canada.

Chromatomyia fuscula (Zetterstedt, 1838) [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

1h > Leaf-miner: Long upper-surface corridor usually containing several larvae that graze shoulder to shoulder from the leaf tip downwards. Pupation outside the mine. Mines and larvae are indistinguishable from those of A. nigrella (Bladmineerders van Europa).

On Bromus, Bromopsis, Elymus, Holcus, Phleum and Triticum, but not yet on Hordeum, in Britain and additional grasses elsewhere. Widespread in Britain and continental Europe.

Agromyza mobilis Meigen, 1830 [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

1i > Leaf miner: Broad corridor, starting not far from the base of the blade, running upwards. Frass deliquescent, only few grains recognisable, mine greenish. Larva solitary. Pupation outside the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

The larva is described by Darvas and Papp (1985) and Darvas, Skuhravá and Andersen (2000). Mandibles each with 2 heavy teeth, front spiraculum with 11-14, rear spiraculum with 3 bulbs. The bulbs of the rear spiracula are elongated and S-shaped (d'Aguilar, Chambon and Touber, 1976a; Hering, 1957a, 1962a; Spencer, 1973b) (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Pupation external.

On Secale cereale, but not yet on Hordeum, in Britain and Bromus, Hordeum, Secale and Triticum elsewhere. Only known from Oxford, Cambridge and Hunts in Britain. Widespread in continental Europe. Also recorded in Tunisia.

Agromyza intermittens (Becker, 1907) [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

1j> Leaf-miner: Larval leaf-mine starts as a narrow channel running towards apex of leaf but later develops into a broad blotch running downwards. Frass largely diffused, giving the mine a characteristic greenish appearance. Pupation external (Spencer, 1976: 126).

Corridor, usually several in one leaf, running from close to the leaf base up to near the tip, then reversing direction and widening, resulting in one communal mine in which the larvae descend in a common front . Frass somewhat deliquescent, mine therefore strikingly green. Pupation outside the mine. Neither mine nor larva distinguishable from those of mobilis (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Puparium reddish brown

On Dactylis, Festuca, Glyceria, Holcus, Lolium, Phleum, Poa, Secale, Setaria, Trisetum and Triticum, but not yet on Hordeum, in Britain and additionally other genera of grasses elsewhere. Widespread in Britain. Common and widespread thoughout much of Europe. Also recorded in the U.S.A.

Agromyza nigrella (Rondani, 1875) [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

1k > Leaf-miner: Larvae feeding singly, forming a long, widening mine on the upper surface of the leaf, which is generally limited to one side of the leaf. Pupation external, puparium glued to the leaf near the end of the mine (Spencer, 1976: 128).

Broad corridor, generally beginning near the leaf margin or close to the leaf tip. Most of the times the mine remains at one side of the midrib. The mine is upper-surface, but has some full depth, translucent spots here and there. Frass in rather regularly scattered grains. Pupation outside the mine. According to Dempewolf (2004a) only the male genitalia enable a reliable discrimination from A. abipennis and A. graminicola (Bladmineerders van Europa).

On Glyceria and Holcus, but not yet on Hordeum, in Britain and additional genera of grasses in continental Europe. Widespread and common in Britain. Widespread in continental Europe. Also recorded in Canada.

Agromyza nigripes Meigen, 1830 [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

1l > Leaf-miner: The young larva first feeds towards the apex of the leaf, later turning and feeding downwards. Several larvae can occur together in a single leaf. Pupation external (Spencer, 1976: 130).

Upper-surface, greenish, gradually widening corridor, at first running towards the leaf tip, then reverses. Through fusion of several mines the final mine is often communal. Frass in backish green grains, often washed out. Pupation outside the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Puparium reddish brown

Mine of Agromyza nigrociliata on Arrhenatherum elatius. Image: © Willem Ellis (Source: Bladmineerders en plantengallen van Europa)
Mine of Agromyza nigrociliata on Arrhenatherum elatius
Image: © Willem Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa)
Agromyza nigrociliata puparium
Agromyza nigrociliata puparium
Image: © Willem Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa)

On Arrhenatherum, Dactylis, Elymus, Hordeum, Phalaris, Secale and Triticum in Britain and additional genera of grasses elsewhere. Widespread in Britain and continental Europe. Also recorded in the East Palaearctic.

Agromyza nigrociliata Hendel, 1931 [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

1m > Leaf-miner: Mine greenish with only single larva, initially running towards apex of leaf before turning back down and developing into a broad blotch. Puparium reddish brown.

On Arrhenatherum, Bromus, Calamagrostis, Poa, Secale and Triticum, but not yet on Hordeum, in Britain and additional grasses elsewhere. Widespread in Britain and continental Europe.

Agromyza rondensis Strobl, 1900 [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

1n > Leaf miner: A short narrow mine, generally near apex of leaf. Larva with each segment bearing a row of characteristic papilli which are retained in the puparium (Spencer, 1976: 328). Pupation internal.

Transparent, short and narrow mine not far from the leaf tip. Frass in two rows of grains. Pupation outside the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).

On Avena, Dactylis, Holcus, Hordeum, Lolium, Phalaris, Phragmites, Poa and Secale in Britain and additional other genera of grasses elsewhere. Widespread, but local, in south of Britain. Widespread in continental Europe. Also recorded in Canada.

Pseudonapomyza atra (Meigen, 1830) [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

1o > Leaf-miner: Larva feeds mainly in the leaf sheaths. The short mines which may be formed in the leaf blade may be easily overlooked. Pupation internal (Spencer, 1976: 178).

Mine begins as a narrow, usually upper-surface, occasionally lower-surface or interparenchymatous corridor in the blade, that descends towards the ligule, thence continues into the leaf sheath, generally on its inside. Usually only one mine per leaf. Puparium in a pupariuml chamber at the margin of the leaf sheath. Neither mine nor larva can be distinguished from that of C. fulvipes that, as far as is known, only feeds on Poa trivialis (Bladmineerders van Europa).

On Alopecurus, Elymus, Festuca, Holcus and Phalaris, but not yet on Hordeum, in Britain (including the Channel Is.) and additional grasses, including Elytrigia, elsewhere. Widespread from the southern England to Scotland, most northerly record Outer Hebrides. Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland, Europe, Africa and Japan.

Cerodontha denticornis (Panzer, 1806) [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

1p > Leaf-miner: Broad elongated mine; the form is dependent of the leaf form of the host plant. Frass green. Usually a number of larvae together in a mine. Pupation in the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).

On Bromopsis, Dactylis, Elymus and Phalaris, but not yet on Hordeum, in Britain and additional grasses, including Elytrigia, elsewhere. Widespread in Britain. Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland. Widespread and common in continental Europe. Also recorded in Japan, U.S.A. and Canada.

Cerodontha incisa (Meigen, 1830) [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

1q > Leaf-miner: A linear mine running towards the apex of the leaf and this can widen and become almost blotch-like. Pupation internal (Spencer, 1976: 194, 195 (fig. 340).

Upper surface corridor, mostly in the lower half of the blade, running upwards, and never occuping more than half the width of the leaf. Larva solitary. Frass in green smears. Pupation inside the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).

On Dactylis, Elymus, Phalaris and Triticum, but not yet on Hordeum, in Britain and additional genera of grasses, including Elytrigia, in continental Europe. Uncommon in England. Widespread in continental Europe. Also recorded in Japan and Canada.

Cerodontha lateralis (Macquart, 1835) [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

1r > Leaf-miner: Broad lower surface mine which generally starts at the leaf apex.The mine is somewhat irregular in depth. Frass in irregular black-green, frequently melted grains, mostly along the edges of the mine. Larva solitary. Pupation generally internal (Bladmineerders van Europa).

On Calamagrostis, Elymus and Hierochloe, but not yet on Hordeum, in Britain and additional genera of grasses, including Elytrigia, elsewhere. Widespread and not uncommon in Britain. Widespread in continental Europe. Also recorded Canada and the U.S.A.

Cerodontha muscina (Meigen, 1830) [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

1s > Leaf-miner: Normally several larvae feed together. Pupation in the mine (Spencer, 1976: 198).

Broad elongated blotch. Frass greenish. Larvae generally communal. Pupation within the mine. The black puaria are individially anchored within the mine with a silken thread attached at their rear end. Distinguishable from C. incisa only by means of the larva (Bladmineerders van Europa).

On Arrhenatherum, Brachypodium, Bromus, Bromopsis, Calamagrostis, Dactylis, Deschampsia, Elymus, Festuca, Holcus, Lolium, Molinia and Phalaris, but not yet on Hordeum, in Britain and additional grasses elsewhere. Widespread and common in Britain. Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland. Widespread and frequently common in much of Europe. Also recorded in Alaska and Canada.

Cerodontha pygmaea (Meigen, 1830) [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

1t > Leaf-miner: Upper-surface corridor, generally in the upper half of the blade, running up to the leaf tip, usually occupying more then half the width of the leaf. Frass in green stripes at either side of the corridor. Never more than one larva in a mine. Puparium within the mine, metallic black, not anchered with a string of silk (Bladmineerders van Europa).

On Ammophila and Elymus, but not yet on Hordeum, in Britain and additional grasses including Elytrigia, elsewhere. Known only from Norfolk and Elgin in Britain. Widespread in continental Europe. Also recorded in Canada and the U.S.A.

Cerodontha superciliosa (Zetterstedt, 1860) [Diptera: Agromyzidae].
1u > Leaf-miner: A narrow whitish linear mine, running down the leaf from the apex, with frass in two rows of separate grains. Pupation external (Spencer, 1976: 246).

Narrow corridor from start to end, whitish, uppper- or lower-surface, genarally running downwards. Mine often along the leaf margin. Frass in distict grains of regular size, alternating along the sides of the corridor. Pupation outside the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Mine of Liriomyza flaveola on Festuca gigantea. Image: © Willis Ellis (Source: Bladmineerders en plantengallen van Europa)
Mine of Liriomyza flaveola on Festuca gigantea
Image: © Willis Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa)

On Bromus, Dactylis, Holcus and Poa, but not yet on Hordeum, in Britain and additional grasses elsewhere. Common and widespread throughout Britain. Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland. Common throughout much of Europe.

Liriomyza flaveola (Fallén, 1823) [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

1v > Leaf-miner: Upper surface corridor mine. The mine starts at the leaf apex. Frass in clumps or closely packed grains (Bladmineerders van Europa).

On ? Arrhenatherum, but not yet on Hordeum, in Britain and additional grasses elsewhere. British record needs confirmation as the species is not listed as a British species by Henshaw in Chandler, 1998. Recorded in continental Europe.

? Liriomyza graminivora Hering, 1949 [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

1w > Leaf-miner: Irregular mine, locally shallow, elsewhere much deeper, giving it a mottled appearance. In broadleaved plants the mine often begins as a blotch with stellate extensions, but sometimes as a very fine, shallow corridor. In grasses the mine often begins in the leaf sheath. The frass is very fine-grained, initially scattered, later in aggregates.

Mine of Hydrellia griseola on Glyceria fluitans. Image: © Willem Ellis (Source: Bladmineerders en plantengallen van Europa)
Mine of Hydrellia griseola on Glyceria fluitans
Image: © Willem Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa)

Polyphagpus. On ? Alisma, ? Damasonium, ? Sagittaria, ? Bellis, ? Rorippa, Tropaeolum, ? Lychnis, ? Stellaria, ? Carex, ? Cyperus, ? Scirpus, ? Hydrocharis, ? Stratiotes, ? Lamium, ? Lemna, ? Allium, Arrhenatherum, ? Polygonum, ? Potamogeton, ? Veronica, ? Typha, but not yet on Hordeum, in Britain.

On ? Alisma, ? Damasonium, ? Sagittaria, ? Bellis, ? Rorippa, Tropaeolum, Lychnis, ? Stellaria, Carex, ? Scirpus, Trifolium, ? Hydrocharis, Lamium, ? Lemna, Allium, Papaver, Agrostis, Alopecurus, Apera, Arrhenatherum, Avena, Avenula, Brachypodium, Briza, Bromus, Calamagrostis, Dactylis, Desmazeria, Digitaria, Echinochloa, Eleusine, Elymus, Festuca, Gaudinia, Glyceria, Holcus, Hordeum, Lagurus, Lolium, Panicum, Phalaris, Phleum, Phragmites, Poa, Secale, Setaria, Triticum, ? Polygonum, ? Potamogeton, Veronica, ? Typha and Verbena elsewhere. Widespread in England. Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland. Widespread in the Palaearctic region. Also recorded from Nearctic and Australasian Regions.

Hydrellia griseola (Fallén, 1813) [Diptera: Ephydridae].



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