The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Liriomyza strigata (Meigen, 1830)
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]

Agromyza strigata Meigen, 1830. Syst. Beschr. 6: 186
Agromyza pumila Meigen, 1830. Syst. Beschr. 6: 185
Agromyza violae Curtis, 1844. Gardeners' Chron. 1844 (April 20): 244
Agromyza strigata Meigen, 1830; Hendel, 1931. Fliegen palaearkt. Reg. 6(2): 931.
Agromyza galeopsios
Hardy, 1853c. The Scottish Gardener 2(12): 370-3. [Synonymised by Bland, 2000: 11]
Liriomyza strigata (Meigen, 1830); Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 7, 10, 48, 51 (figs 171-2), 55, 111-117, 121
Liriomyza strigata (Meigen, 1830); Spencer, 1976. Fauna ent. Scand. 5(1): 270-2, figs 484-6.
Liriomyza strigata (Meigen, 1830); Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the World Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 263, 264 (figs 996-8), 382-384, and more
Agromyza galeopsios Hardy, 1853c; Bland, 2000. Dipterists Digest 7: 11.


Leaf-mine: A distinctive mine primarily above mid-rib, with irregular short lateral offshoots into leaf blade. Pupation external (Spencer, 1972: 51 (fig. 172), 55; Spencer, 1976: 270, 271 (fig. 486)).

Branched, whitish, upper-surface corridor; main axis overlying the midrib; side branches overlying the main lateral veins. (In Campanula and Phyteuma the mine is much less branched, sometimes nothing more than a corridor on top of the midrib). Frass in rather long strings. Usually the mines begins as a long and narrow, shallow, tortuous lower-surface corridor that ends upon the midrib but otherwise is not associated with the leaf venation. Often this initial corridor is filled with callus, and then even less conspicuous. Pupation outside the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).

A linear mine on the upper surface, usually following the midrib and showing side branches along the veins. The frass is in strings (British leafminers).

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

The larva is described by Dempewolf (2001: 152). Posterior spiracles each with an ellipse of 10-12 bulbs (Spencer, 1972b: 55). The larva is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Posterior spiracles each with an ellipse of 10-12 bulbs (Spencer, 1972b: 55.

Comments: A polyphagous species recorded here from 240 host plant genera in 35 plant families worldwide and 47 host plant genera in 15 plant families in Britain.

Alyssum saxatile is treated as Aurinia saxatile (Golden Alison) and Arabis arenosa is treated as Arabidopsis arenosa (Sand Rock-cress) by Stace (2010).

Diagnostic protocols to distinguish L. strigata from bryoniae, huidobrensis and sativae in quaratine or under glass, may be found at /protocols/liriomyza.pdf.

Chrysanthemum coronarium is treated as Glebionis coronarium (Crown Daisy); Chrysanthemum segetum is treated as Glebionis segetum (Corn Marigold); Leontodon autumnalis is treated as Scorzoneroides autumnalis (Autumn Hawkbit); Lychnis flos-cuculi is treated as Silene flos-cuculi (Ragged-Robin); Lycopersicon esculentum is treated as Solanum lycopersicum (Tomato); Senecio fluviatilis is treated as Senecio sarracenicus (Broad-leaved Ragwort) and Stachys officinalis is treated as Betonica officinalis (Betony) by Stace (2010).

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Apiaceae
Hydrocotyle vulgaris Marsh Pennywort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 121
Asteraceae
Achillea ptarmica Sneezewort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Artemisia absinthium Wormwood British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Artemisia absinthium Wormwood British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1991: 117
Artemisia absinthium Wormwood British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 111
Artemisia vulgaris Mugwort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 111
Aster Spencer, 1972b: 55
Bidens cernua Nodding Bur-marigold British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Bidens tripartita Trifid Bur-marigold British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Bidens tripartita Trifid Bur-marigold British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 56
Calendula officinalis Perennial Pot Marigold British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Centaurea Robbins, 1983: 22
Centaurea Spencer, 1972b: 55
Centaurea cyanus Cornflower British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 112
Centaurea jacea Brown Knapweed Mines in BMNH
Centaurea montana Perennial Cornflower British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1991: 122
Centaurea nigra Common Knapweed British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Centaurea nigra Common Knapweed British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 112
Chrysanthemum morifolium Mines in BMNH
Cicerbita macrophylla Common Blue-sow-thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 112
Cichorium intybus Chicory British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Cichorium intybus Chicory British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 112
Cirsium dissectum Meadow Thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 112
Cirsium palustre Marsh Thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Cirsium palustre Marsh Thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b; 112
Coreopsis grandiflora Large-flowered Tickseed Mines in BMNH
Dahlia Spencer, 1972b: 113
Dahlia pinnata Dahlia Pitkin & Plant
Eupatorium cannabinum Hemp-agrimony British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Eupatorium cannabinum Hemp-agrimony British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 113
Gaillardia Mines in BMNH
Gazania Spencer, 1973a
Helianthus annuus Sunflower British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 113
Hieracium Robbins, 1991: 123
Iva xanthiifolia Marsh-elder Mines in BMNH
Iva xanthiifolia Marsh-elder Spencer, 1972b: 113
Lactuca Pitkin & Plant
Lactuca bourgaei Spencer, 1972b: 113
Lapsana communis Nipplewort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Lapsana communis Nipplewort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Lapsana communis Nipplewort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 114
Leucanthemum x superbum Robbins, 1991: 116, as Chrysanthemum maximum
Pericallis hybrida Cineraria Spencer, 1973a
Picris hieracioides Hawkweed Oxtongue British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Senecio Robbins, 1991: 110
Senecio aquaticus Marsh Ragwort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 114
Senecio jacobaea Common Ragwort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Senecio jacobaea Common Ragwort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 114
Solidago canadensis Goldenrod British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Sonchus Robbins, 1991: 123
Sonchus arvensis Perennial Sow-thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Sonchus arvensis Perennial Sow-thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Tony Marshall (pers. comm.)
Sonchus asper Prickly Sow-thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Sonchus asper Prickly Sow-thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 115
Sonchus oleraceus Smooth Sow-thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Sonchus oleraceus Smooth Sow-thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 115
Sonchus palustris Marsh Sow-thistle Mines in BMNH
Tanacetum Spencer, 1973a
Tanacetum vulgare Tansy British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Tanacetum vulgare Tansy British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1991: 117
Taraxacum Robbins, 1991: 123
Taraxacum officinale Dandelion British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 115
Brassicaceae
Brassica Robbins, 1983: 22
Capsella bursa-pastoris Shepherd's-purse British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Capsella bursa-pastoris Shepherd's-purse British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 115
Campanulaceae
Campanula Mines in BMNH
Campanula glomerata Clustered Bellflower British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Campanula glomerata Clustered Bellflower British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Campanula medium Canterbury-bells Mines in BMNH
Campanula trachelium Nettle-leaved Bellflower British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Campanula trachelium Nettle-leaved Bellflower British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1991: 105
Campanula trachelium Nettle-leaved Bellflower British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 110
Convolvulaceae
Ipomoea Mines in BMNH
Ipomoea Spencer, 1972b: 115
Dipsacaceae
Scabiosa columbaria Small Scabious British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Pitkin & Plant
? Scabiosa columbaria Small Scabious British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Pitkin & Plant
Euphorbiaceae
Euphorbia amygdaloides Wood Spurge British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Mercurialis perennis Dog's Mercury British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Tony Marshall (pers. comm.)
Fabaceae
Lupinus Mines in BMNH
Lupinus Spencer, 1972b: 117
Vicia faba Broad Bean British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1991: 47
Lamiaceae
Galeopsis Robbins, 1991: 103
Galeopsis tetrahit Common Hemp-nettle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Galeopsis tetrahit Common Hemp-nettle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 116
Lamium Robbins, 1991: 102
Lamium album White Dead-nettle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Lamium album White Dead-nettle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 116
Linaceae
Linum Robbins, 1991: 38
Malvaceae
Alcea Robbins, 1991: 37
Alcea rosea Hollyhock British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Alcea rosea Hollyhock British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 117

? Malva

Pitkin & Plant
Sidalcea Robbins, 1991: 37
Papaveraceae
Meconopsis cambrica Welsh Poppy British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Pitkin & Plant
Papaver somniferum Opium Poppy British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Polemoniaceae
Phlox drummondii Annual Phlox Spencer, 1973a
Polemonium caerulum Jacob's-ladder British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Resedaceae
Reseda Robbins, 1991: 31
Valerianaceae
Centranthus Robbins, 1991: 107
Centranthus Mines in BMNH
Centranthus Spencer, 1972b: 121
Valerianaceae
Valeriana officinalis Common Valerian British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Valeriana officinalis Common Valerian British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 121
Violaceae
Viola tricolor Wild Pansy British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1973a

Time of year - mines: June-November.

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread throughout Britain including Perthshire (Killin) (Spencer, 1972b: 55), Warwickshire (Coventry, Holbrooks) (Robbins, 1991), Buckinghamshire (Langley's Wood, nr. Holmer Green) (Tony Marshall, pers. comm.), Hampshire (Fleet) (British leafminers); Anglesey, Caernarvonshire, Cambridgeshire, East Gloucestershire, East Ross, East Suffolk, Main Argyll, North Somerset, Peebles, Pembrokeshire, Shropshire, South Lancaster, South Somerset, SOuth-west Yorkshire, Surrey and West Gloucester (NBN Atlas).

Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland: Co. Clare (Spencer, 1972b: 55).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread and common in continental Europe including Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Finland (Spencer, 1976: 270), The Netherlands, Luxembourg (Bladmineerders van Europa), Belgium (de Bruyn and von Tschirnhaus, 1991), Germany (Spencer, 1976: 558; Dempewolf, 2001: 152), Albania, Belarus, Corsica, Cyclades Is., Czech Republic, Dodecanese Is, Estonia, European Turkey, French mainland, Greek mainland, Italian mainland, Lithuania, Madeira, North Aegean Is., Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Spanish mainland and Switzerland (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

See also Fauna Europaea country map.

Range extending eastwards in the [former] U.S.S.R. to the Republics of Kirghiz, Kazakh and Uzbek (Spencer, 1976: 270).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Achillea grandifolia, Achillea millefolium, Achillea ptarmica, Anthyllis vulneraria, Alcea rosea, Alliaria petiolata, Allium porrum, Anaphalis margaritacea, Antirrhinum majus, Antirrhinum orontium, Apium graveolens, Arabis arenosa (= Arabidopsis arenosa), Arctium lappa, Alyssum saxatile (= Aurinia saxatile), Arctium minus, Arctium nemorosum, Arctium tomentosum, Artemisia absinthium, Artemisia dracunculus, Artemisia vulgaris, Aster amellus, Aster novae-angliae, Aster novi-belgii, Atriplex hastata, Atriplex patula, Ballota nigra, Bellis perennis, Bidens cernua, Bidens tripartita, Brassica napus, Brassica oleracea, Brassica rapa, Bryonia cretica, Bunias orientalis, Callistephus chinensis, Calendula officinalis, Calepina irregularis, Campanula alliariifolia, Campanula glomerata, Campanula lactiflora, Campanula medium, Campanula rapunculoides, Campanula rotundifolia, Campanula trachelium, Cannabis sativa, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Carduus acanthoides, Carduus crispus, Carduus nutans, Centaurea cyanus, Centaurea jacea, Centaurea macrocephala, Centaurea montana, Centaurea nigra, Centaurea rhenana, Centaurea scabiosa, Centranthus calcitrapae, Cheiranthus cheiri, Chrysanthemum coronarium (= Glebionis coronarium), Chrysanthemum segetum (= Glebionis segetum), Cicerbita macrophylla, Cichorium endivia, Cichorium intybus, Cirsium acaule, Cirsium arvense, Cirsium dissectum, Cirsium helenioides, Cirsium oleraceum, Cirsium palustre, Cirsium vulgare, Cnicus benedictus, Conyza canadensis, Coriandrum sativum, Coreopsis grandiflora, Crambe cordifolia, Crepis biennis, Crepis capillaris, Crepis paludosa, Crepis praemorsa, Crepis tectorum, Crepis zacintha, Dahlia pinnata, Doronicum pardalianches, Doronicum plantagineum, Ecballium elaterium, Erigeron speciosus, Eruca vesicaria, Erysimum cheiranthoides, Erysimum repandum, Euonymus europaeus, Eupatorium cannabinum, Euphorbia amygdaloides, Gaillardia aristata, Gaillardia pulchella, Galeopsis ladanum, Helenium autumnale, Helianthus annuus, Helianthus tuberosus, Helichrysum bracteatum, Heliotropium europaeum, Hesperis matronalis, Hieracium aurantiacum, ? Hieracium gracile, Hieracium laevigatum, Hieracium murorum, Hieracium pulmonarioides, Hieracium tridentatum, Hieracium umbellatum, Hieracium vulgatum, Humulus lupulus, Hydrocotyle vulgaris, Hymenocarpus circinnatus, Iva xanthiifolia, Hyoscyamus albus, Hyoscyamus niger, Kickxia spuria, Knautia arvensis, Lagenaria siceraria, Lamiastrum galeobdolon, Lamium album, Lamium amplexicaule, Lamium maculatum, Lamium purpureum, Lapsana communis, Lathyrus latifolius, Lathyrus odoratus, Lathyrus palustris, Legousia speculum-veneris, Leonurus cardiaca, Leontodon autumnalis (= Scorzoneroides autumnalis), Lepidium draba, Leucanthemum x superbum, Leucanthemum vulgare, Linum usitatissimum, Lobelia urens, Lupinus angustifolius, Lupinus luteus, Lupinus polyphyllus, Lychnis flos-cuculi (= Silene flos-cuculi), Lycopersicon esculentum (= Solanum lycopersicum), Malcolmia maritima, Malva moschata, Meconopsis cambrica, Medicago sativa, Mercurialis perennis, Myagrum perfoliatum, Mycelis muralis, Nemesia versicolor, Nicotiana tabacum, Onopordum acanthium, Papaver bracteatum, Papaver nudicaule, Papaver orientale, Papaver rupifragum, Papaver somniferum, Pericallis hybrida, Petunia hybrida, Phaseolus vulgaris, Phyteuma spicatum, Picris hieracioides, Pilosella officinarum, Pisum sativum, Plantago major, Polemonium caeruleum, Prenanthes purpurea, Reseda luteola, Reseda odorata, Ricinus communis, Rorippa amphibia, Rorippa islandica, Rorippa sylvestris, Rudbeckia hirta, ? Scabiosa columbaria, Senecio aquaticus, Senecio elegans, Senecio erucifolius, Senecio fluviatilis, Senecio jacobaea, Senecio fluviatilis (= Senecio sarracenicus), Senecio nemorensis, Senecio vernalis, Senecio viscosus, Senecio vulgaris, Solanum nigrum, Solanum tuberosum, Solidago canadensis, Solidago gigantea, Sonchus arvensis, Sonchus asper, Sonchus oleraceus, Sonchus palustris, Sisymbrium irio, Sisymbrium loeselii, Sisymbrium officinale, Stachys officinalis (= Betonica officinalis), Stachys sylvatica, Succisa pratensis, Tagetes erecta, Tagetes patula, Tanacetum macrophyllum, Tanacetum parthenium, Tanacetum vulgare, Taraxacum officinale, Thlaspi arvense, Tolpis barbata, Trachelium caeruleum, Tropaeolum majus, Tropaeolum peregrinum, Tussilago farfara, Vaccaria pyramidata, Valeriana dioica, Valeriana officinalis, Valerianella locusta, Valerianella rimosa, Valeriana officinalis, Veronica hederifolia, Vicia faba, Vicia sativa, Viola tricolor, Xanthium strumarium

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea  
Chrysocharis entedonoides (Walker, 1872) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis orbicularis (Nees, 1834) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis pallipes (Nees, 1834) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis pubicornis (Zetterstedt, 1838) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Pediobius metallicus (Nees, 1834) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Diglyphus chabrias (Walker, 1838) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Diglyphus isaea (Walker, 1838) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Ichneumonoidea  
Chorebus ampliator (Nees, 1834) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Chorebus artemisiellus Griffiths, 1968 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Chorebus daimenes (Nixon, 1945) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Chorebus uliginosus (Haliday, 1839) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dacnusa discolor (Förster, 1862) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dacnusa maculipes Thomson, 1895 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dacnusa sibirica Telenga, 1935 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Opius gracilis Fischer, 1957 Braconidae: Opiinae
Opius levis Wesmael, 1835 Braconidae: Opiinae
Opius pallipes Wesmael, 1835 Braconidae: Opiinae
Opius propodealis Fischer, 1958 Braconidae: Opiinae
Opius pulchriceps (Szépligeti, 1898) Braconidae: Opiinae
Phaedrotoma exigua Wesmael, 1835 Braconidae: Opiinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
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