The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

Join us on Facebook

CIRSIUM. Thistles. [Asteraceae]


Fifteen species of Cirsium are recorded in Britain. These include the native Creeping Thistle (C. arvense), Dwarf Thistle (C. acaule), Marsh Thistle (C. palustre), Meadow Thistle (C. dissectum), Melancholy Thistle (C. heterophyllum), Spear Thistle (C. vulgare), Tuberous Thistle (C. tuberosum) and Woolly Thistle (C. eriophorum) and the introduced Cabbage Thistle (C. oleraceum).

Melancholy Thistle (C. heterophyllum) is protected in Northern Ireland under Schedule 8 of the Wildlife (Northern Ireland) Order, 1985.

Twenty-eight or twenty-nine British miners are recorded on Cirsium.

The agromyzid Melanagromyza aeneoventris bores the stems of Cirsium spp. in Britain and elsewhere.

The agromyzid Melanagromyza eriolepidis is recorded on Cirsium by Spencer, 1990 251, but its life-style is not stated.

A key to the miners on Cirsium is provided in Bladmineerders van Europa.

Wooly Thistle - Cirsium eriophorum. Image: © Brian Pitkin
Wooly Thistle
Cirsium eriophorum



Key for the identification of the known mines of British
Diptera recorded on Cirsium


Note: Diptera larvae may live in a corridor mine, a corridor-blotch mine, or a blotch mine, but never in a case, a rolled or folded leaf, a tentiform mine or sandwiched between two more or less circular leaf sections in later instars. Pupation never in a cocoon. All mining Diptera larvae are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall. The larvae lie on their sides within the mine and use their pick-like mouthparts to feed on plant tissue. In some corridor miners frass may lie in two rows on alternate sides of the mine. In order to vacate the mine the fully grown larva cuts an exit slit, which is usually semi-circular (see Liriomyza huidobrensis video). The pupa is formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

See Key to non-Diptera.


1a > Leaf-miner: Blotch mine.

2

1b > Leaf-miner: Corridor mine.

3

2a > Leaf-miner: Large, very transparent blotch, with primary and secundary feeding lines. In the centre a concentration of black frass. Mines can coalesce, and then contain several larvae. At the start of the mine, at the leaf underside, a white egg shell. However, the larva can leave its mine and restart elsewehere, therefore mines without an egg shell may occur as well (Bladmineerders van Europa).

A white egg is laid at the start of the mine, on the leaf underside. A large clear mine is formed in the centre of the leaf, with a black frass pile. Mines may coalesce and so a mine may contain several larvae (British Leafminers).

Mine of Pegomya steini on Cirsium vulgare. Image: © Willem Ellis (Source: Bladmineerders en plantengallen van Europa)
Mine of Pegomya steini on Cirsium vulgare
Image: © Willem Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa)

On ? Carduus, ? Carlina, Cirsium and Cynara in Britain and elsewhere, although British records on Carduus and Carlina are ambiguous. Distibution in Britain unknown. Widespread in continental Europe.

Pegomya steini Hendel, 1925 [Diptera: Anthomyiidae].

2b > Leaf-miner: Mine usually starts near tip of leaf as a small dark brown blotch; it expands rapidly due to the presence of several larvae in the same mine. This expansion is on a broad front but usually down only one side of the midrib. The final mine is a large brownish subtriangular blotch, which is darkest oin the vicinity of the origin.Under a hand lens, the mine is clearly marked with manyy small patches of parallel feeding-lines. The larvae leave the mine to pupate, but occasionally the pupariria are attached to the leaf near to the exit slit (Bland, 1997b: 181-4).

On Cirsium in Britain. Known only from the Southern highlands of Scotland.

Phytomyza heterophylli Bland, 1997 [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

2c > Leaf-miner: A large blotch, yellow or brown, preceded by a short corridor that in the end mostly is completely overrun. Generally several larvae share a mine. Especially in fresh mines the green primary and secondary feeding lines are well visible. Pupation outside the mine. Puparium yellow.

Euleia heraclei puparia
Euleia heraclei pupariria
Image: © Willem Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa)

Polyphagous. On numerous genera of Apiaceae and possibly some Asteraceae, including ? Cirsium, in Britain and elsewhere. Throughout the British Isles. Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland and most of the Palaearctic region, as far east as Afghanistan.

Euleia heraclei (Linnaeus, 1758) [Diptera: Tephritidae].

3a > Leaf-miner: A distinctive mine primarily above mid-rib, with irregular short lateral offshoots into leaf blade. Pupation external (Spencer, 1972: 51 (fig. 172), 55; Spencer, 1976: 270, 271 (fig. 486)).

Branched, whitish, upper-surface corridor; main axis overlying the midrib; side branches overlying the main lateral veins. (In Campanula and Phyteuma the mine is much less branched, sometimes nothing more than a corridor on top of the midrib). Frass in rather long strings. Usually the mines begins as a long and narrow, shallow, tortuous lower-surface corridor that ends upon the midrib but otherwise is not associated with the leaf venation. Often this initial corridor is filled with callus, and then even less conspicuous. Pupation outside the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).

A linear mine on the upper surface, usually following the midrib and showing side branches along the veins. The frass is in strings (British leafminers).

Polyphagous. On more than 40 host genera in 15 families in Britain including Cirsium. Widespread throughout Britain. Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland. Widespread in continental Europe.

Liriomyza strigata (Meigen, 1830) [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

3b > Leaf-miner: Larva feeds along the mid-rib, predominantly on the lower surface and there is little evidence of gall-like swelling. Pupation takes place at the base of the midrib.

On Carduus and Centaurea, but not yet on Cirsium, in Britain. On Arctium, Carduus, Cichorium and Cirsium elsewhere. Widespread in Britain and continental Europe.

Phytomyza continua Hendel, 1920 [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

3c > Leaf-miner: Broad corridor overlying the midrib. The mine has a number of side branches that distally widen strongly, and may coalesce. Primary and secondary feeding lines very conspicuous (Bladmineerders van Europa). Pupation external, in soil.

Mine of Cornutrypeta spinifrons on Senecio ovalis. Image: © Willem Ellis (Source: Bladmineerders en plantengallen van Europa)
Mine of Cornutrypeta spinifrons on Senecio ovalis
Image: © Willem Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa)

On Aster and Solidago, but not yet on Cirsium, in Britain and possibly also Cirsium elsewhere. In Britain Recently recorded only from Kent and Perth. There are old records (pre-1960) for Hereford and Lancaster.

Cornutrypeta spinifrons (Schroeder, 1913) [Diptera: Tephritidae].

3c > Leaf-miner: Mine not primarily associated with mid-rib.

4

4a > Leaf-miner: Mine linear, whitish, both upper and lower surface. Pupation internal, at the end of the mine with the anterior spiracles projecting through the epidermis (Spencer, 1976: 433). Upper-surface, less often lower-surface corridor. Frass in isolated grains. Pupation within the mine, in a, usually lower-surface, pupal chamber (Bladmineerders van Europa). A long whitish upper surface corridor, which eventually goes lower surface (British leafminers).

Two highly polyphagous species of Chromatomyia, with indistinguishable mines, have been recorded in Britain. These are syngenesiae (Hardy) and horticola (Goureau) which can only be distinguished by the male genitalia. Both species are widespread in Britain and elsewhere, although syngenesiae is almost entirely restricted to Asteraceae. Records on Asteraceae not based on examination of male genitalia are treated in this account as Chromatomyia 'atricornis'.

Chromatomyia 'atricornis' has been recorded on Cirsium in Britain.

Chromatomyia syngenesiae is recorded on Cirsium elsewhere but not yet on Cirsium in Britain.

Chromatomyia horticola (Goureau, 1851) [Diptera: Agromyzidae]
OR
Chromatomyia syngenesiae Hardy, 1849 [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

4b > Leaf-miner: The mine begins as a long, quite narrow corridor, usually not far from the tip of a leaf segment. Usually this corridor follows the leaf margin for some distance, but it may also run freely through the blade and may then be stongly contorted. In the end the corridor is directed towards the midrib, where an elongated blotch is formed, overlying the midrib and some of the larger lateral veins. Frass in a nearly continuous line in the initial corridor, in scattered lumps in the later part of the mine. Primary and secondary feeding lines very conspicuous when seen in transparancy. Pupation outside the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).

The mine starts as a very narrow corridor, usually close to the tip of a leaf segment and following the leaf margin. The later section of the corridor approaches the main vein, where an elongated blotch is made with long broad finger like extensions that lay over the secondary veins. In the initial corridor the frass forms an almost continuous line, in the blotch it is distributed in large scattered lumps. In fresh mines the secondary feeding lines are clearly visible (British leafminers).

On numerous genera of Asteraceae, but not yet on Cirsium. Throughout the British Isles, more common in the south than the north. Also continental Europe.

Trypeta zoe Meigen, 1826 [Diptera: Tephritidae].

4c > Leaf-miner: An irregular linear mine (Spencer, 1972b: 55).

Strictly upper-surface corridor; often the loops are so close that a secondary blotch develops. The mine resembles a compact version of the one of Phytomyza cirsii. Frass at first in isolated grains, later in strings, not along the sides but untidily scattered over the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).

On Cirsium in Britain and elsewhere. Uncommon.

Liriomyza soror Hendel, 1931 [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

4d > Leaf-miner: Long, irregular, whitish linear mine which turns brown when older and has conspicuous frass in large widely-spaced black lumps. Pupation external (Spencer, 1976: 371 (fig. 647A), 372).

Very long, initially whitish, later brownish, upper-surface corridor, frequently starting near the leaf tip, often crossing itself. Frass in strikingly large black lumps, more widely spaced than their own diameter. Pupation outside the mine; exit slit in upper epidermis (Bladmineerders van Europa).

On Cirsium in Britain and elsewhere. A boreal alpine species. Widespread in continental Europe

http://bladmineerders.nl/parasites/animalia/arthropoda/insecta/diptera/brachycera/agromyzidae/phytomyzinae/phytomyza/phytomyza-albiceps/ Meigen, 1830 [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

4e > Leaf-miner: Mine long, distinctly greenish. Pupation in mine (Spencer, 1972b: 88).

Branched, upper-surface corridor, with very irregular sides. Frass in isolared grains, maximally only 4 times their diameeter apart. Pupation within the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Mine of Phytomyza autumnalis on Centaurea nigra, ex Spencer Collection. Image: © Brian Pitkin
Mine of Phytomyza autumnalis on Centaurea nigra (Spencer Collection)
Image: © Brian Pitkin

On Cirsium and Centaurea in Britain and also on Onorpordum elsewhere. Common and widespread in Britain. Also recorded from the Republic of Ireland. Widespread in continental Europe

Phytomyza autumnalis Griffiths, 1959 [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

4f > Leaf-miner: A shallow, upper surface, whitish linear mine. Pupation external (Spencer, 1972b: 72 (fig. 233A), 77).

Tortuous, upper-surface corridor, often somewhat geryish, and/or following the leaf margin. Frass grains fairly small, separated by about their own diameter. Primary feeding lines often conspicuous. Pupation outside the mine; exit slit in upper epidermis (Bladmineerders van Europa).

A long whitish upper surface mine. The frass grains are small and can occur close together (British leafminers).

Mine of Phytomyza cirsii on Cirsium arvense. Image: © Willem Ellis (Source: Bladmineerders en plantengallen van Europa)
Mine of Phytomyza cirsii on Cirsium arvense
Image: © Willem Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa)
Phytomyza cirsii larva, lateral
Phytomyza cirsii larva, lateral
Image: © Willem Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa)

On Cirsium in Britain, plus Carduus, Cyanara, ? Scolymus and Serratula elsewhere. Widespread in Britain, probably not uncommon but overlooked. Also recorded from the Republic of Ireland. Widespread and common in much of Europe

Phytomyza cirsii Hendel, 1923 [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

4g > Leaf-miner: Long narrow interparenchymal mine, greenish. Pupation in leaf at end of mine (Spencer, 1976: 503 (fig. 880)).

Unusually long, interparenchymatous, therefore yellowish corridor that remains of equal width throughout its length. (In some plants with thin leaves, like Cirsium oleraceum the mines are not interparechymatous but either full-depth or alternating upper- and lower-surface). The mine makes few curves, and hardly any u-turn, causing the mine to usually occupy the entire length of a leaf. Frass in two rows of grains along the sides. Pupation within the mine, in a lower-surface pupariuml chamber; the anterior spiracles penetrate the epidermis (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Mines of Phytomyza spinaciae on Cirsium arvense. Image: © Willem Ellis (Source: Bladmineerders en plantengallen van Europa)
Mines of Phytomyza spinaciae on Cirsium arvense
Image: © Willem Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa)

On Carduus, Centaurea, Cirsium and Onopordum in Britain and in addition Cnicus and Serratula elsewhere. Only recorded from Warwick and Stafford in Britain. Also recorded in the Repupublic of Ireland. Widespread in continental Europe, range extending to the Kirghiz Republic of the [former] U.S.S.R.

Phytomyza spinaciae Hendel, 1928 [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

4h > Leaf-miner: Strongly branched corridor mine which can become a secondary blotch. Frass in small grains. Pupation inside the mine (Spencer, 1976: 505 (fig. 883) or outside the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Hosts in Britain unknown. On Centaurea and ? Cirsium elsewhere. Recorded as new to Britain by McLean (1981). Widespread in continental Europe

Phytomyza spoliata Strobl, 1906 [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

4i > Leaf-miner: A short, irregular, linear upper surface mine on any part of the leaf. Also recorded from young pods (Bland, 1997a).

Long corridor mine. As a rule the first part of the mine is lower-surface, the later part upper-surface. Often the loops are so dense that a secondary blotch is the result. Because upper- and lower-surface corridor segments often cross, the mine obtains a strange array of transparant patches. There is no association with the midrib. Frass in strings and thread fragments. Pupation outside the mine; exit slit in upper epidermis (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Mine not associated with the veins or midrib of the leaf (It is this character which enables distinction from another Agromyzid pest species - Liriomyza huidobriensis). The larvae may leave one leaf (if not large enough) and enter another leaf, via the petiole). It exits the leaf to pupate through a semi-circular slit in the upper surface of the leaf (British leafminers).

Polyphagous. On 119 plant genera in 31 plant families of which only 4 plant genera in 2 plant families, but not yet on Cirsium, in Britain. Local, probably introduced to Britain. Widespread in continental Europe particularly in Botanical Gardens and glasshouses. Also recorded in Egypt.

Liriomyza bryoniae (Kaltenbach, 1858) [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

4j > Leaf-miner: Full depth, initially a much branched corridor, irregular in width, in the end almost a blotch. The mine has openings by which part of the frass is ejected. The larvae frequently leave the mine to restart elsewhere. Older larva live free and cause window feeding, often erasing their old mines. In Coltsfoot also pseudo-mines are made, when the larva eats away the lower epidermis with the leaf tissue, but spares the dense hair cover (Bladmineerders van Europa).

On Ranunculus, but not yet on Cirsium, in Britain and numerous genera and species in several families elsewhere. Distribution in Britain unknown. Widespread in continental Europe.

Phytosciara halterata Lengersdorf, 1926 [Diptera: Sciaridae].



Key for the identification of the known mines of British
non-Diptera recorded on Cirsium


Note: The larvae of mining Coleoptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera may live in a corridor mine, a corridor-blotch mine, a blotch mine, a case, a rolled or folded leaf, a tentiform mine or sandwiched between two more or less circular leaf sections in later instars. Larva may pupate in a silk cocoon. The larva may have six legs (although they may be reduced or absent), a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding). Larvae of Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera usually also have abdominal legs (see examples). Frass, if present, never in two rows. Unless feeding externally from within a case the larva usually vacates the mine by chewing an exit hole. Pupa with visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).


1a > Leaf-miner and case-bearer: The larva lives outside the mine, protected by a case, and feeds on the underlying plant tissues via a hole cut in the epidermis. From that point it eats away as much leaf tissue as it can reach without fully entering the mine. Mine does not contain frass (Coleophora species)

2

1b > Leaf-miner, but not a case-bearer: The larva lives mainly inside the mine. Mine usually contains frass. In later instars the larva may live sandwiched between two more or less circular sections cut from the leaf.

3
2a > Leaf-miner and case-bearer: Larva mines leaves. On Eupatorium the case is extended at the anal end by adding silk and widened by cutting a ventral gusset. On Inula the case is firstly extended by adding rings of leaf-cuticle at the oral end, before reverting to the method used when on Eupatorium. The full-grown case is 10 mm long (British leafminers). A slender tubular silken case, about 10 mm long, straw coloured, three valved. Mouth angle about 30° (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Coleophora folicularis larva, dorsal
Coleophora folicularis larva, dorsal
Image: © Willem Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa)

On Cirsium, Eupatorium, Inula and Pulicaria in Britain and Achillea, Anthemis, Carduus, Cirsium, Eupatorium, Inula, Leucanthemum, Pulicaria and Tanacetum elsewhere. Widespread in England. Also recorded in Republic of Ireland. Widespread in continental Europe.

Coleophora follicularis (Vallot, 1802) [Lepidoptera: Coleophoridae].

2b > Leaf-miner and case-bearer: Larva mines leaves (British leafminers). The larva builds a case from silk, resembling a razor shell in appearance. (UKMoths). The full-grown case is 12 mm long and blackish-brown (British leafminers). The full grown larva lives in a blackish brown trivalved tubular silken case of about 8 mm. The mouth angle is 0°-10°, causing the case to lay almost flat on the leaf (Bladmineerders van Europa).

On Arctium, Centaurea, Cirsium, Serratula in Britain and Arctium, Carduus, Centaurea, Cirsium, Saussurea and Serratula elsewhere. Widespread in Britain, Ireland and continental Europe.

Coleophora paripennella Zeller, 1839 [Lepidoptera: Coleophoridae].

2c > Leaf-miner and case-bearer: The larva forms a case, approximately 11-12 mm long, beneath a thistle leaf, although burdock may sometimes be used. The shape of the ochreous case varies as, when being enlarged, it is elongated first, and the girth increased subsequently (UKMoths). Yellow-brown to light grey tubular silken case with darker length lines. The case is fairly large (up to 17 mm) and very slender. The rear end is three-valved, the mouth angle about 50°. The larva feeds at the underside of the leaf (Bladmineerders van Europa).

On Arctium, Carduus and Cirsium in Britain and Arctium, Carduus, Carlina, Centaurea and Cirsium elsewhere. England, Wales and southern Scotland. Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland. Widespread in continental Europe.

Coleophora peribenanderi Toll, 1943 [Lepidoptera: Coleophoridae].

3a > Leaf and Stem-miner: Initially mines basal leaves of Cirsium etc., before moving into the stem (Michael Morris, pers. comm.).

On Cirsium in Britain. Hosts elsewhere unknown. Widespread in Britain and continental Europe. Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland.

Hadroplontus litura (Fabricius, 1775) [Coleoptera: Curculionidae].

3b > Leaf-miner: The eggs of this species are laid on a leaf, with the larvae mining the underside of the leaf, until a late instar when it feeds in a web under the midrib of the leaf, causing visible blotching on the upperside (UKMoths). Short, full depth corridor. The larva relatively long lives as a miner, but finally leaves the mine and continues living in spinning along the midrib at the leaf underside, from where windows are eaten in the leaf (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Agonopterix propinquella on Cirsium arvense
Mines of Agonopterix propinquella on Cirsium arvense
Image: © Ian Smith (UKMoths)

On Cirsium in Britain and Arctium, Carduus, Centaurea, Cirsium, Cynara, Mycelis and Serratula elsewhere. Widespread in Britain and continental Europe.

Agonopterix propinquella (Treitschke, 1835) [Lepidoptera: Depressariidae].

3c > Leaf-miner: Rather long full depth corridor that winds freely through the leaf and may cross itself. In the end the corridor widens considerably. Frass mostly in a narrow central line, but may also be deposited along the sides or be missing. The larvae regular leave a mine to restart elsewhere. Pupation outside the mine. Neither larva or mine can be distinguished from that of related species (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Polyphagous. On numerous genera and species in several plant families, including Cirsium, in Britain and elsewhere. Widespread in Britain and continental Europe.

Apteropeda orbiculata (Marsham, 1802) [Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae].

3d > Leaf-miner: The larva makes a large number of untidy full depth mines. The mines contain hardly or no frass. The opening made by the larva in the underside of the leaf is irregular roundish, sometimes more of a slit, large in proportion to the size of the mine, and usually positioned at the side of the mine. The larva mines until just before the pupation, that takes place externally (Bladmineerders van Europa).

On Centaurea, but not yet on Cirsium, in Britain and Centaurea, Cirsium and Globularia elsewhere. Widespread but scarce in southern England from Wilts to Kent. Widespread in continental Europe.

Jordanita globulariae (Hübner, 1793) [Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae].

3e > Leaf-miner: Rather narrow corridor, untidy and sometimes branched, starting from the base of the leaf, in particular the midrib. Sides of the corridor irregularly eaten out, not really parallel. Frass mostly present, and then in a central line. The larva is capable of leaving the mine and start a new one elsewhere. These later mines are much broader, and the frass is scattered irregularly. (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Mine of Orthochaetes insignis on Prunella vulgaris
Mine of Orthochaetes insignis on Prunella vulgaris
Image: © Jean-Yves Baugnée (Bladmineerders van Europa)

Host plants unknown in Britain. On numerous genera and species in several plant families, including Cirsium, elsewhere. Recorded in southern England. Widespread in continental Europe.

Orthochaetes insignis (Aube, 1863) [Coleoptera: Curculionidae].

3f > Leaf-miner: The mine is brownish and extends along the midrib, sometimes branching (British leafminers). Oviposition on top of the midrib. Immediately after emergence the larva gnaws a cavity in the midrib, and from there an irregular blotch is made adjacent to the midrib. The larva continues living in the midrib that is gradully hollowed out, making from there broad, brownish, full depth excursions in the blade. The mine contains much frass; most of it is concentrated in the area immediately bordering the midrib. Older, no longer occupied parts of the mine often split open. Mines mainly on the lower leaves. The slender larvae move surprisingly fast upon disturbance; when they rest (in daytime) they lie lengthwise in the hollowed midrib. Pupation outside the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).

On Artemisia, Carduus, Cirsium and possibly Tussilago in Britain and Carduus and Cirsium elsewhere. Records from Carlina vulgaris and Tussilago farfara are probably incidental. Widespread in Britain and continental Europe.

Scrobipalpa acuminatella (Sircom, 1850) [Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae].

3g > Long corridor, often following the leaf margin, with little frass and with the sides irrregularly eaten out. The first part of the corridor is full depth and makes a few close loops; the later part is more upper-surface and rather wide. Primary feeding lines often conspicuous. No morphological differences are known between the larva of S. rubidum and S. testaceum (Steinhausen, 1994a). However, there is a phenological difference: the larva of testaceum hibernates in the mine and continues feeding after winter; S. rubidum vacates the mine before winter and pupates in the soil. Hering (1957a) suggests that the identification of the beetles is an easy matter, but that is contradicted by Warchalowski (2003a). (Bladmineerders van Europa).

On Carduus, Centaurea and Cirsium in Britain and on Arctium, Carduus, Cirsium, Centaurea, Cynara, Onopordum and Serratula elsewhere. Widespread in Britain and continental Europe.

Sphaeroderma testaceum (Fabricius, 1775) [Coloeptera : Chrysomelidae].

3h > Long corridor mine, without obvious relation with the leaf margin, with little frass and irregularly eaten out sides. The first part of the mine is full depth and makes a few close loops; the second part is upper-surface and considerably wider. Primary feedings lines often obvious. The larva is so broad that is completely fills the mine. No morphological differences are known between the larvae of S. rubidum and those of S. testaceum (Steinhausen, 1994a). The larva leaves the mine to pupate in the soil (the larva of testaceum hibernates in the mine.) Hering (1957a) suggests that the imagines are easily separated, but this is contradicted by Warchalowski (2003a). (Bladmineerders van Europa).

On Arctium, Carduus, Carthamus, Centaurea, Cirsium, Corylus, Cynara, Onopordum and Serratula in Britain and on Arctium, Carduus, Centaurea, Cynara and Serratula elsewhere. Widespread in Britain and continental Europe.

Sphaeroderma rubidum (Graells, 1858) [Coloeptera : Chrysomelidae]



XHTML Validator Last updated 15-Nov-2017 Brian Pitkin Top of page