The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds


Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess, 1880)
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]

American serpentine Leaf-miner


Oscinis trifolii Burgess, 1880. Rep. U.S. Dept. Agric. 1879: 200
Liriomyza alliovora Frick, 1955
Liriomyza phaseolunulata Frost, 1943.
Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess, 1880); Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the World Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 133, 134 (figs 497-8), 123, 382-384, and more.

Leaf-miner: A tightly coiled, almost blotch-like mine. The mine is described and illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.

The mine is also illustrated in British leafminers.

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

Orange-yellow; posterior spiracles with 3 bulbs, of which the outer is extended.

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).


Comments: A polyphagous pest of ornamental and vegetable crops occasionally intercepted at UK points of entry. Hosts cited here include 155 plant genera in 41 plant families worldwide

Minkenberg and Lenteren (1986) review the parasites and hosts of Liriomyza trifolii.

The species has been found under glass in England and Wales but all populations have been and continue to be eradicated (Dom Collins, pers. comm.).

Liriomyza trifolii is listed in the European Community Plant Health Directive (2000/29/EC). As a non-native notifiable pest species, its occurence in the United Kingdom should be notified immediately to the Plant Health and Seeds Inspectorate (tel: +44 (0) 1904 462000, e-mail: However, in order to be certain of the identity, the male genitalia should be critically examined. Diagnostic protocols may be found at /protocols/liriomyza.pdf

Lycopersicon esculentum is treated as Solanum lycopersicum (Tomato) by Stace (2010).

Hosts: The species is recorded worldwide on Acanthaceae, Amaranthaceae, Anacardiaceae, Apiaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Asteraceae, Basellaceae, Brassicaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Iridaceae, Lamiaceae, Liliaceae, Malvaceae, Onagraceae, Passifloraceae, Piperaceae, Plantaginaceae, Poaceae, Polemoniaceae, Polygonaceae, Portulacaceae, Primulaceae, Ranunculaceae, Rosaceae, Sapindaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Solanaceae, Turneraceae, Typhaceae, Valerianaceae, Verbenaceae and Zygophyllaceae.

Time of year - mines: Currently unknown.

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Distribution in Great Britain and Ireland: Occasionally intercepted at UK points of entry (Dom Collins, pers. comm.).

Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Dunne and O'Connor, 1989).

Distribution elsewhere: Worldwide. Europe including Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canary Is. Corsica, Crete, Cyprus, Czech Republic, ? Denmark, European Turkey, Finland, French mainland, Germany, Greek mainland, Hungary, Italian mainland, Malta, Monaco, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Portuguese mainland, Romania, Sardinia, Sicily, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spanish mainland, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands and Yugoslavia (Fauna Europaea).

Also recorded in the U.S.A. and Canada (Spencer, 1969a: 190), Afro-tropical, Australian, East Palaearctic, Near East, Neotropical regions and North Africa (Fauna Europaea).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Allium cepa, Allium porrum, Allium schoenoprasum, Amaranthus retroflexus, Amaranthus spinosus, Amaranthus viridis, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Anethum graveolens, Antirrhinum majus, Anthriscus cerefolium, Apium graveolens, Arachis hypogaea, Artemisia absinthium, Avena sativa, Baccharis halimifolia, Bidens pilosa, Beta vulgaris, Brassica napus, Brassica oleracea, Calendula officinalis, Callistephus chinensis, Capsicum annuum, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Centaurea cyanus, Centranthus ruber, Chenopodium album, Citrullus lanatus, Crataegus monogyna, Cucumis melo, Cucumis sativus, Cucurbita maxima, Cucurbita pepo, Datura metel, Daucus carota, Dianthus caryophyllus, Gaillardia aristata, Galinsoga ciliata, Galinsoga quadriradiata, Glycine max, Gypsophila paniculata, Helianthus annuus, Hordeum vulgare, Lactuca sativa, Lactuca serriola, Lamium amplexicaule, Lathyrus odoratus, Lycopersicon esculentum (= Solanum lycopersicum), Malva moschata, Malva neglecta, Medicago lupulina, Medicago sativa, Melilotus albus, Melilotus indicus, Pastinaca sativa, Phaseolus coccineus, Phaseolus vulgaris, Physalis pubescens, Pisum sativum, Plantago lanceolata, Plantago major, Polygonum persicaria, Portulaca oleracea, Raphanus raphanistrum, Raphanus sativus, Ricinus communis, Senecio jacobaea, Senecio vulgaris, Solanum americanum, Solanum dulcamara, Solanum nigrum, Solanum tuberosum, Sonchus asper, Sonchus oleraceus, Spinacia oleracea, Tagetes erecta, Tagetes patula, Tanacetum parthenium, Taraxacum officinale, Thlaspi arvense, Tragopogon porrifolius, Tribulus terrestris, Trifolium incarnatum, Vaccaria pyramidata, Vicia faba, Vicia sativa, Vigna radiata

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chrysocharis liriomyzae Delucchi, 1954 Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis orbicularis (Nees, 1834) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis pentheus (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis pubicornis (Zetterstedt, 1838) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Neochrysocharis formosus (Westwood, 1833) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Cirrospilus vittatus Walker, 1838 Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Diglyphus crassinervis Erdös, 1958 Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Diglyphus isaea (Walker, 1838) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Hemiptarsenus ornatus (Nees, 1834) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Neochrysocharis chlorogaster (Erdös, 1966) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Halticoptera aenea (Walker, 1833) Pteromalidae: Miscogastrinae
Halticoptera circulus (Walker, 1833) Pteromalidae: Miscogastrinae
Epiclerus nomocerus (Masi, 1934) Tetracampidae: Tetracampinae
Ichneumonoidea - Links to species no longer available  
Dacnusa maculipes Thomson, 1895 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dacnusa sibirica Telenga, 1935 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Opius gracilis Fischer, 1957 Braconidae: Opiinae
Opius lugens Haliday, 1837 Braconidae: Opiinae

External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
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