The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Ophiomyia pinguis (Fallén, 1820)
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]

Chicory fly


Madiza pinguis Fallén, 1820. Oscinides Sveciae :10
Ophiomyia pinguis (Fallén, 1820); Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 25
Ophiomyia pinguis (Fallén, 1820); Spencer, 1976. Fauna ent. Scand. 5(1): 73-74, figs 91-5
Ophiomyia pinguis (Fallén, 1820); Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the World Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 249, 259, 260 (fig. 977), 261.


Leaf-mine: Egg is laid beneath the epidermis on the upper leaf surface. Larva mines in basal leaves. Pupation internal (Spencer, 1976: 74).

Little branched corridors, radiating from the leaf base, often deep in the plant tissue. The larva can migrate from one leaf to the other through the petioles. Frass concentrated in the lowest, basal part of the mine; there also the pupation takes place (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

The larva is described by de Meijere (1925), Süss (1971) and Dempewolf (2001: 77). Posterior spiracles on distinct stalks, each with an ellipse of 9-11 bulbs (Spencer, 1976: 74 (fig. 94)).

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Pale whitish-yellow; posterior spiracles on distinct stalks, each with an ellipse of 9-11 bulbs (Spencer, 1976: 74 (fig. 94)).

Comments: A serious pest of cultivated chicory in Belgium and The Netherlands frquently introduced into Britain. The mining activity is detectable from the reddish discolouration of the white leaves (Spencer, 1972b: 25).

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Asteraceae        
Cichorium       Robbins, 1991: 124
Cichorium intybus Chicory British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 112
Cichorium intybus Chicory British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1973a
Leontodon       Robbins, 1991: 124
Leontodon       Spencer, 1972b: 114

Hosts elsewhere:

Asteraceae        
Cichorium       Spencer, 1990: 259
Cichorium intybus Chicory British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Cichorium intybus Chicory British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1976: 74
Cichorium endivia Endive   Bladmineerders van Europa
Cichorium endivia Endive   Spencer, 1976: 74
Lactuca       Spencer, 1990: 259
Lactuca       Dempewolf, 2001: 77
Lactuca sativa Garden Lettuce British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Lactuca sativa Garden Lettuce British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1976: 74
Leontodon       Bladmineerders van Europa
Leontodon       Spencer, 1990: 259
Leontodon       Spencer, 1976: 74
Taraxacum officinale Dandelion British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - mines: Larval feeding in the first generation can last from 18-25 days but this is reduced later in the summer.

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Uncommon, but widespread. Devon (Lyme Regis), Dunbarton (Cardross), London, Cambridge (Cambridge, on chicory introduced from Belgium or the Netherlands) (Spencer, 1972b: 25) and Warwickshire (Robbins, 1991: 124).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Denmark, Finland, Sweden, Spain, Italy, [fomer] Yugoslavia (Spencer, 1976: 73-4), The Netherlands (Bladmineerders van Europa), Belgium (de Bruyn and von Tschirnhaus, 1991), Germany (Spencer, 1976: 452; Dempewolf, 2001: 77), Austria, Czech Republic, European Turkey, French mainland, Hungary, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia and Yugoslavia (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

Range extending eastwards to Tadzhik S.S.R and Uzbek S.S.R. (Spencer, 1976: 73-4).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Cichorium endivia, Cichorium intybus, Lactuca sativa, Taraxacum officinale

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea   
Pachyneuron muscarum (Linnaeus, 1758) Pteromalidae: Pteromalinae
Stenomalina gracilis (Walker, 1834) Pteromalidae: Pteromalinae
Ichneumonoidea  
Chorebus leptogaster (Haliday, 1839) Braconidae: Alysiinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
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