The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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LEONTODON. Hawkbits. [Asteraceae]


Five of species of Leontodon are recorded in Britain. These include the native Autumn Hawkbit (L. autumnalis), Rough Hawkbit (L. hispidus) and Lesser Hawkbit (L. saxatilis). Leontodon autumnalis is treated as Scorzoneroides autumnalis by Stace (2010). The BSBI provide a downloadable plant crib for Leontodon.

Eleven or twelve miners are recorded on Leontodon.

The tortricid Cnephasia conspersana is recorded as a seed / shoot-feeder on Leontodon in Britain.

Autumn Hawkbit - Leontodon autumnalis. Image: © Brian Pitkin
Autumn Hawkbit
Leontodon autumnalis



Key for the identification of the known mines of British
insects (Diptera and non-Diptera) recorded on Leontodon


1a > Stem miner: An external stem mine with frass in two rows of disconnected strips. Pupation in stem at end of mine (Spencer, 1972b: 25; Spencer, 1976: 61 (fig. 63B), 65-6).

Polyphagous. On Campanula, Jasione, Phyteuma [Campanulaceae], Crepis, Hypochaeris and Lapsana [Asteraceae], but not yet on Leontodon, in Britain and additional genera of both families elsewhere. Uncommon in Britain - recorded in London, Warwick and Cambridge. Uncommon but Widespread in continental Europe.

Ophiomyia heringi Stary, 1930 [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

1b > Leaf-miner: Mine primarily associated with mid-rib.

2

1c > Leaf-miner: Mine not primarily associated with mid-rib.

3

2a> Leaf-miner: A distinctive mine primarily above mid-rib, with irregular short lateral offshoots into leaf blade. Pupation external (Spencer, 1972: 51 (fig. 172), 55; Spencer, 1976: 270, 271 (fig. 486)).

Branched, whitish, upper-surface corridor; main axis overlying the midrib; side branches overlying the main lateral veins. (In Campanula and Phyteuma the mine is much less branched, sometimes nothing more than a corridor on top of the midrib). Frass in rather long strings. Usually the mines begins as a long and narrow, shallow, tortuous lower-surface corridor that ends upon the midrib but otherwise is not associated with the leaf venation. Often this initial corridor is filled with callus, and then even less conspicuous. Pupation outside the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).

A linear mine on the upper surface, usually following the midrib and showing side branches along the veins. The frass is in strings (British leafminers).

Polyphagous. On more than 40 host genera in 15 families, but not yet on Leonotodon, in Britain,. Widespread throughout Britain. Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland. Widespread in continental Europe.

Liriomyza strigata (Meigen, 1830) [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

2b > Leaf-miner: A whitish blotch-mine along the mid-rib, with lateral offshoots into the leaf blade. Pupation at base of leaf in petiole (Spencer, 1972b: 25).

Broad corridor overlying the midrib, with short excursion into the blade, mainly in its basal part. Frass concentrated in the basal part of the mine, corridors almost free from frass. Pupation in the mine, also in the basal part (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Mine of Ophiomyia pulicaria on Taraxacum officinale. Image: © Willem Ellis (Source: Bladmineerders en plantengallen van Europa)
Mine of Ophiomyia pulicaria on Taraxacum officinale
Image: © Willem Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa)

On Crepis, Hieracium, Hypochaeris, Leontodon, Picris, Pilosella, Sonchus and Taraxacum in Britain and additional genera of Asteraceae elsewhere. Widespread and common in Britain and continental Europe. Range extending east to Siberia. Also recorded from Canada.

Ophiomyia pulicaria (Meigen, 1830) [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

2c > Leaf-miner: A white mine along mid-rib, with offshoots into leaf blade. Pupation internal at base of mid-rib.

In Asteraceae the larva mostly lives as a borer in the midrib of the leaves. From there short corridors are made into the blade. Also a corridor can be made overlying the midrib. In Euphorbia a small mine is made in the bracts of the inflorescence. The final mine strongly resembles the one of Liriomyza strigata, but the branches are vritually free from frass; this is acccumulated in the resting place of the larva, in the base of the midrib. There also pupation takes place (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Forms a mine along the midrib and has feeding spurs into the leaf. Pupation is in the mine at the base of the midrib (British leafminers).

On Cicerbita, Leontodon, Sonchus and Taraxacum in Britain and numerous other genera of Asteraceae elsewhere. Widespread in south, but not common, in Britain. Widespread in continental Europe.

Ophiomyia beckeri (Hendel, 1923) [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

3a > Leaf-miner: A narrow, whitish linear mine. Pupation internal (Spencer, 1976: 416).

Upper-surface, less often lower-surface corridor. Frass in isolated grains. Puparium within the mine, usually at the lower surface (Bladmineerders van Europa).

On Leontodon autumnalis and Taraxacum officinale in Britain and elsewhere. Britain and the Republic of Ireland. Widespread in continental Europe.

Chromatomyia farfarella (Hendel, 1935) [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

3b > Leaf-miner: Mine linear, whitish, both upper and lower surface. Pupation internal, at the end of the mine with the anterior spiracles projecting through the epidermis (Spencer, 1976: 433).

Upper-surface, less often lower-surface corridor. Frass in isolated grains. Pupation within the mine, usually in a lower-surface puparial chamber (Bladmineerders van Europa).

A long whitish upper surface corridor, which eventually goes lower surface (British leafminers).

Two highly polyphagous species of Chromatomyia, with indistinguishable mines, have been recorded in Britain. These are syngenesiae (Hardy) and horticola (Goureau) which can only be distinguished by the male genitalia. Both species are widespread in Britain and elsewhere, although syngenesiae is almost entirely restricted to Asteraceae. Records on Asteraceae not based on examination of male genitalia are treated in this account as Chromatomyia 'atricornis'.

Chromatomyia 'atricornis' has been recorded on Leontodon elsewhere but not yet on Leontodon in Britain.

Chromatomyia syngenesiae has been recorded on Leontodon in Britain.

Chromatomyia horticola (Goureau, 1851) [Diptera: Agromyzidae]
OR
Chromatomyia syngenesiae Hardy, 1849 [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

3c > Leaf-miner: A small somewhat irregular, elongate blotch (Spencer, 1972b: 57; Spencer, 1976: 273 (fig. 491), 274).

Elongated upper-surfcace blotch with fairly little frass in loose grains. Pupation outside the mine; exit slit in upper epidermis (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Liriomyza taraxaci larva,  dorsal
Liriomyza taraxaci larva, dorsal
Image: © Willem Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa)
Orchestes fagi larva,  dorsal
Liriomyza taraxaci puparium
Image: © Willem Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa)

On Leontodon and Taraxacum in Britain and Aposeris, Arnoseris, Leontodon and Taraxacum elsewhere, Widespread in Britain and continental Europe.

Liriomyza taraxaci Hering, 1927 [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

3d > Leaf-miner: Egg is laid beneath the epidermis on the upper leaf surface. Larva mines in basal leaves. Pupation internal (Spencer, 1976: 74).

Little branched corridors, radiating from the leaf base, often deep in the plant tissue. The larva can migrate from one leaf to the other through the petioles. Frass concentrated in the lowest, basal part of the mine; there also the pupation takes place (Bladmineerders van Europa).

On Cichorium and Leontodon in Britain and in addition Lactuca and Taraxacum elsewhere. Uncommon, but widespread in Britain. Widespread in continental Europe, range extending eastwards to Tadzhik S.S.R and Uzbek S.S.R.

Ophiomyia pinguis (Fallén, 1820) [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

3e > Larva mining both lower and upper surface, unusually long, linear, conspicuously broad, frequently largely on the underside of the leaf. Pupation external (Spencer, 1972b: 76 (fig. 251); Spencer, 1976: 445 (fig. 780), 446).

Corridor mine. The first part consists of a very long and narrow lower-surface corridor; the mine is quite shollow here, and often inconspicuous. The second part is upper-surface, uusally much shorter, and widens abruptly. Pupation outside the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).

On Crepis, Hieracium, Lapsana, Picris, Pilosella, Senecio, Sonchus and Taraxacum, but not yet on Leontodon, in Britain and additionally other genera of Asteraceae elsewhere. Widespread in southern Britain, also Sutherland, Inner Hebrides and Warwick. Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland and Widespread in much of Europe.

Phytomyza marginella Fallén, 1823 [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

3f > Leaf-miner: The mine begins with a very narrow full depth corridor, that ends upon the midrib. Subsequently a broad corridor, or rather an elongated blotch, is made overlying the midrib; from here broad, lobe-like extensions are made into the blade. Frass in discrete grains. Secondary feeding lines conspicuous. The larva is capable of leaving the mine and restarting in a new leaf, in which case the association with the midrib may be lost. Pupation after vacation of the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Mine of Trypeta immaculata on Taraxacum
Mine of Trypeta immaculata on Taraxacum
Image: Rob Edmunds (British leafminers)

On Cichorium, Crepis, Hieracium and Taraxacum, but not yet on Leontodon, in Britain and additionally other genera of Asteraceae elsewhere. North-east Scotland, also throughout Ireland and continental Europe, except the Mediterranean area.

Trypeta immaculata (Macquart, 1835) [Diptera: Tephritidae].

3g > Leaf-miner: The mine begins in the midrib, especially in a lower leaf, extending into the leaf disc, branching irregularly or pinnately, may also locally be blotch like. The mine is brown and very transparent. Sides very irregularly eaten out. Frass loosely dispersed or in a loose central line, buy may also be pressed against the sides of the corridor. The larva may also leave the mine and restart elsewhere (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Orthochaetes setiger larva,  dorsal
Orthochaetes setiger larva, dorsal
Image: © Jean-Yves Baugnée (Bladmineerders van Europa)

Polyphagous. On numerous genera and species in several plant families, but not yet on Leontodon, in Britain. On numerous genera and species in several plant families, including Leontotodon, elsewhere. Widespread in England and continental Europe. Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland.

Orthochaetes setiger (Beck, 1817) [Coleoptera: Curculionidae].



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