The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Pegomya steini (Hendel, 1925)
[Diptera: Anthomyiidae]


Pegomya steini (Hendel, 1925). Konowia 4: 304.

Leaf-mine: Large, very transparent blotch, with primary and secundary feeding lines. In the centre a concentration of black frass. Mines can coalesce, and then contain several larvae. At the start of the mine, at the leaf underside, a white egg shell. However, the larva can leave its mine and restart elsewehere, therefore mines without an egg shell may occur as well (Bladmineerders van Europa).

A white egg is laid at the start of the mine, on the leaf underside. A large clear mine is formed in the centre of the leaf, with a black frass pile. Mines may coalesce and so a mine may contain several larvae (British Leafminers).

Mine of Pegomya steini on Cirsium vulgare. Image: Willem Ellis (Source: Bladmineerders van Europa)
Mine of Pegomya steini on Cirsium vulgare
Image: © Willem Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa)

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

The larva is described by Vos-de Wilde (1935) and illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Comments: Ackland in Chandler (1978) did not indicate whether his host records were British or Foreign and are therefore included under 'Hosts in Britain' and 'Hosts elsewhere

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland: Cirsium arvense (Creeping Thistle), C. heleniodies (Melancholy Thistle), C.palustre (Marsh Thistle), Cynara colymus (Globe Artichoke)

Asteraceae        

? Carduus

acanthoides   Ackland in Chandler, 1978: 228
? Carduus crispus Welted Thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Ackland in Chandler, 1978: 228
? Carduus nutans Musk Thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Ackland in Chandler, 1978: 228
? Carlina vulgaris Carline Thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Ackland in Chandler, 1978: 228
? Cirsium arvense Creeping Thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Ackland in Chandler, 1978: 228
Cirsium arvense Creeping Thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Cirsium arvense Creeping Thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British Leafminers
? Cirsium eriophorum Woolly Thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Ackland in Chandler, 1978: 228
Cirsium helenioides Melancholy Thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Cirsium helenioides Melancholy Thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British Leafminers
? Cirsium palustre Marsh Thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Ackland in Chandler, 1978: 228
Cirsium palustre Marsh Thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
? Cirsium palustre Marsh Thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British Leafminers
Cynara       Mines in BMNH
? Cynara       Ackland in Chandler, 1978: 228
Cynara scolymus Globe Artichoke British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Pitkin & Plant
Cynara scolymus Globe Artichoke British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British Leafminers

Hosts elsewhere:

Asteraceae        
Carduus Hering, 1957
Carduus acanthoides     Bladmineerders van Europa

? Carduus

acanthoides     Ackland in Chandler, 1978: 228
? Carduus crispus Welted Thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Ackland in Chandler, 1978: 228
Carduus crispus Welted Thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Carduus defloratus     Bladmineerders van Europa
Carduus hamulosus     Bladmineerders van Europa
Carduus nutans Musk Thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
? Carduus nutans Musk Thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Ackland in Chandler, 1978: 228
? Carlina vulgaris Carline Thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Ackland in Chandler, 1978: 228
Carlina       Hering, 1957
Cirsium       Hering, 1957
Cirsium acaule Dwarf Thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Cirsium appendiculatum     Bladmineerders van Europa
? Cirsium arvense Creeping Thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Ackland in Chandler, 1978: 228
Cirsium arvense Creeping Thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
? Cirsium eriophorum Woolly Thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Ackland in Chandler, 1978: 228
Cirsium erisithales Yellow Thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Cirsium helenioides Melancholy Thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Cirsium oleraceum Cabbage Thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Cirsium oleraceum x rivulare     Bladmineerders van Europa
? Cirsium palustre Marsh Thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Ackland in Chandler, 1978: 228
Cirsium palustre Marsh Thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Cirsium x semidecurrens Tuberous Marsh-thistle   Bladmineerders van Europa, as Cirsium palustre x tuberosum
Cirsium spinosissimum     Bladmineerders van Europa
Cirsium vulgare Spear Thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Cirsium vulgare Spear Thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al.

Bladmineerders van Europa, as Cirsium lanceolatum

? Cynara       Ackland in Chandler, 1978: 228
Cynara       Hering, 1957

Time of year - mines: July.

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Recorded in Britain by Ackland (1978); Cambridgeshire (VC29), East Kent (VC15), Elgin and Surrey (NBN Gateway).

NBN Grid Map:

NBN Grid Map

Pegomya steini
NBN Grid Map : NBN Terms and Conditions

Maps are only displayed if the NBN server is active. N.B. Only publicly available records, if any, are shown by default

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including The Netherlands (Bladmineerders van Europa), Austria, ? Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, French mainland, Germany, Lithuania, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Slovakia and Sweden (Michelsen in Fauna Europaea).

NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:

Carduus acanthoides, Carduus crispus, Carduus nutans, Carlina vulgaris, Cirsium acaule, Cirsium arvense, Cirsium eriophorum, Cirsium erisithales, Cirsium helenioides, Cirsium oleraceum, Cirsium palustre, Cirsium vulgare, Cirsium x semidecurrens, Cynara scolymus

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Ichneumonoidea  
Biosteres carbonarius (Nees, 1834) Braconidae: Opiinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British Leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Gateway
NHM UK Checklist
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Find images using Google


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