The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

N.B. Links to the latest version of 'Leafminers and plant galls of Europe' are being edited

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Phytoliriomyza melampyga (Loew, 1869)
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]


Agromyza melampyga Loew, 1869a. Berl. ent. Z. 13: 48
Liriomyza melampyga (Loew, 1869a); Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 47 (figs. 143-4), 50, 109, figs 143-4
Phytoliriomyza melampyga (Loew, 1869a); Spencer, 1976. Fauna ent. Scand. 5(1): 298-9, figs 535-6.
Phytoliriomyza melampyga (Loew, 1869a); Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the World Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 151 (fig. 571), 153, 157.


Leaf-mine: A narrow linear mine in the first instar, later producing a large irregular whitish blotch with conspicuous black frass. Pupation external (Spencer, 1972b: 47 (fig. 144), 50; Spencer, 1976: 297 (fig. 536), 298).

Long untidy corridor that irregularly widens and narrows. Frass in lumps, strings or thread fragments. Pupation outside the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).

The larva forms a narrow linear mine in the first instar, later producing a large irregular whitish blotch with conspicuous black frass (British leafminers).

The mine is also illustrated in the Encyclopedia of Life.

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

The larva is described by de Meijere (1925, as impatientis), Dempewolf (2001: 129) and illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Reddish-brown; posterior spiracles each with 3 bulbs (Spencer, 1976: 298).

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Balsaminaceae        
Impatiens       British leafminers
Impatiens glandulifera Indian Balsam British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Impatiens glandulifera Indian Balsam British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1991: 38
Impatiens noli-tangere Touch-me-not Balsam British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Impatiens noli-tangere Touch-me-not Balsam British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Impatiens noli-tangere Touch-me-not Balsam British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 109
Impatiens parviflora Small Balsam British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Impatiens parviflora Small Balsam British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 109

Hosts elsewhere:

Balsaminaceae        
Impatiens       Spencer, 1976: 298
Impatiens       Spencer, 1990: 157
Impatiens glandulifera Indian Balsam British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Impatiens noli-tangere Touch-me-not Balsam British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1976: 298
Impatiens noli-tangere Touch-me-not Balsam British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Impatiens parviflora Small Balsam British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1976: 298
Impatiens parviflora Small Balsam British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Dempewolf, 2001: 129
Impatiens parviflora Small Balsam British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Impatiens scabrida     Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - mines: July-August.

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread. London (Hampstead) and Westmorland (Grasmere) (Spencer, 1972b: 50), Surrey (Box Hill) (pers. observation), Warwickshire (Robbins, 1991: 38); Buckinghamshire, Caernarvonshire, Carmarthenshire, Cumberland, Denbighshire, East Cornwall, East Sussex, Easterness, Glamorgan, Herefordshire, Leicestershire, Main Argyll, Merionethshire, North Hampshire, North Somerset, Nottinghamshire, Shropshire, South Lancaster, South-west Yorkshire, Stafford, Surrey, Warwickshire, West Lancaster, West Gloucestershire, Westmorland and Wigtownshire (NBN Atlas).

Also recorded in Ireland (Spencer, 1972b: 50).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden (Spencer, 1976: 298), The Netherlands, Luxembourg (Bladmineerders van Europa), Belgium (de Bruyn and von Tschirnhaus, 1991), Germany (Spencer, 1976: 562; Dempewolf, 2001: 129), Czech Republic, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Switzerland and Ukraine (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

Described from the U.S.A. (Loew, 1869a: 48) and recorded in Canada (Spencer, 1969a: 178).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Impatiens glandulifera, Impatiens noli-tangere, Impatiens parviflora

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea Chalcidoidea
Chrysocharis crassiscapus (Thomson, 1878) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis liriomyzae Delucchi, 1954 Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis nitetis (Walker, 1939) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis pentheus (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis viridis (Nees, 1934) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Closterocerus trifasciatus Westwood, 1833 Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Cirrospilus vittatus Walker, 1838 Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Diglyphus chabrias (Walker, 1838) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Pnigalio soemius (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Halticoptera circulus (Walker, 1833) Pteromalidae: Miscogastrinae
Miscogaster elegans Walker, 1833 Pteromalidae: Miscogastrinae
Ichneumonoidea  
Coloneura stylata Förster, 1862 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dacnusa laeta (Nixon, 1954) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dacnusa maculipes Thomson, 1895 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Colastes braconius Haliday, 1833 Braconidae: Exothecinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
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