The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

N.B. Links to the latest version of 'Leafminers and plant galls of Europe' are being edited

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Phytomyza leucanthemi Hering, 1935
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]


Phytomyza leucanthemi Hering, 1935a. Blattminen Mittel- NordEuropas Lief 1: xi
Phytomyza chrysanthivora Lundquist, 1949. Opusc. ent. 14: 49. [Synonymised by Spencer, 1976: 440]
Phytomyza leucanthemi Hering, 1935a; Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 74 (fig. 245), 79, 112
Phytomyza leucanthemi Hering, 1935a; Spencer, 1976. Fauna ent. Scand. 5(1): 440, fig. 767.
Phytomyza leucanthemi Hering, 1935a; Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the World Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 301, 304 (fig. 1173), 306.


Leaf-mine: Mine irregularly linear, whitish, distinctly widening, most frequently on lower leaves. Pupation external (Spencer, 1972b: 79).

Long, slender corridor, gnerally upper-surface with a lower-surface beginning. Frass in irregular, but not conncted, grains. Pupation outside the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).

A long, irregular galley which widens distinctly, upper surface, but often starting lower surface and sometimes forming a secondary blotch. Most frequently on lower leaves (British leafminers).

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

The larva is described by Hering (1954); posterior spiracles each with 18-20 bulbs.

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Black; posterior spiracles each with an irregular ellipse of some 20 bulbs (Spencer, 1976: 440).

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Asteraceae        
? Leucanthemum x superbum     Robbins, 1991: 116, as Chrysanthemum maximum
Leucanthemum vulgare Oxeye Daisy British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Leucanthemum vulgare Oxeye Daisy British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Leucanthemum vulgare Oxeye Daisy British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1991: 116
Leucanthemum vulgare Oxeye Daisy British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 112

Hosts elsewhere:

Asteraceae        
Chrysanthemum carinatum     Bladmineerders van Europa
Chrysanthemum corymbosum     Bladmineerders van Europa
Chrysanthemum indicum     Bladmineerders van Europa
Leucanthemum       Spencer, 1990: 301
Leucanthemum x superbum     Bladmineerders van Europa, as Leucanthemum maximum
Leucanthemum vulgare Oxeye Daisy British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1976: 440
Leucanthemum vulgare Oxeye Daisy British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - mines: August.

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread but local. Surrey (Box Hill), Hertfordshire (East Barnet), Perthshire (Killin) (Spencer, 1972b: 79), Berkshire (Dinton Pastures), Hampshire (Fleet) (British leafminers), Warwickshire (Foleshill) (Robbins, 1991: 116); Cambridgeshire, Shropshire, South-west Yorkshire, Surrey and West Gloucestershire (NBN Atlas).

Also recorded from Oxeye Daisy (Leucanthemum vulgare), 12 June 1985 at Castlecurragh, Co. Limerick, Ireland (H.C.J. Godfray).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread and not uncommon in many parts of Europe including Norway, Sweden (Spencer, 1976: 440), The Netherlands (Bladmineerders van Europa), Germany (Spencer, 1976: 574), ? Albania, Czech Republic, Denmark, French mainland, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland and Slovenia (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Leucanthemum x superbum, Leucanthemum vulgare

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Ichneumonoidea  
Coloneura stylata Förster, 1862 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dacnusa ocyroe Nixon, 1937 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Colastes braconius Haliday, 1833 Braconidae: Exothecinae
Opius pallipes Wesmael, 1835 Braconidae: Opiinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
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Find images using Google


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