The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

N.B. Links to the latest version of 'Leafminers and plant galls of Europe' are being edited

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Phytomyza obscurella Fallén, 1823
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]


Phytomyza obscurella Fallén, 1823b. Phytomyzides et Ochtidiae Sveciae : 4
Phytomyza obscurella Fallén, 1823b; Hendel, 1935. Fliegen palaearkt. Reg. 6(2): 443
Phytomyza obscurella Fallén, 1823b; Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 69, 89 (figs 303-4), 92, 120
Phytomyza obscurella Fallén, 1823b; Spencer, 1976. Fauna ent. Scand. 5(1): 461-2, figs 807-8.
Phytomyza obscurella Fallén, 1823b; Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the World Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 159, 167, 168 (fig. 610).


Leaf-mine: Mine irregularly linear, whitish green normally adjoining margin of leaf, when old brownish (Spencer, 1972b: 89 (fig. 304), 92; Spencer, 1976: 461, 463 (fig. 808).

An upper-surface, strongly widening corridor, often following the leaf margin for some distance, with much blackish green, deliquescent frass in its centre. Pupation outside the mine; exit slit in upper epidermis (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Mine irregularly linear, whitish green normally adjoining margin of leaf, when old brownish (British leafminers).

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

The larva is described by de Meijere (1926), Allen (1957b) and illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Shining black; posterior spiracles each with 24-28 bulbs of bulbs or bulbs (Spencer, 1976: 461; British leafminers).

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Apiaceae        
Aegopodium       Robbins, 1991: 65
Aegopodium       British leafminers
Aegopodium podagraria Ground-elder British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Aegopodium podagraria Ground-elder British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Aegopodium podagraria Ground-elder British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 120
Aegopodium podagraria Ground-elder British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bland, 1992

Hosts elsewhere:

Apiaceae        
Aegopodium podagraria Ground-elder British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Aegopodium podagraria Ground-elder British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1976: 461
Aegopodium podagraria Ground-elder British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bland, 1994
Aegopodium podagraria Ground-elder British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1990: 167
Aegopodium podagraria Ground-elder British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - mines: January, May-November.

Time of year - adults: August-October.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Common, at least in south (Spencer, 1972b: 92). Inner Hebrides (Isle of Coll) (Bland, 1992), Rum (Bland in Whiteley, 1994), Warwickshire (Coventry and Tile Hill) (Robbins, 1991: 65); Caernarvonshire, East Norfolk, East Ross, Easterness, Edinburgh, Fife, Main Argyll, North Wiltshire, Nottinghamshire, Shropshire and Surrey (NBN Atlas).

Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland: Co. Wexford (Rosslare) (Spencer, 1972b: 92).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden (Spencer, 1976: 461), The Netherlands (Bladmineerders van Europa), Germany (Spencer, 1976: 574), Belgium, Estonia, ? French mainland, Hungary, Italian mainland, Lithuania, Madeira, Poland and Spanish mainland (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

Range extending eastwards to the northern Kirghiz Republic of the [former] U.S.S.R. (Spencer, 1976: 461).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Aegopodium podagraria

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea   
Chrysocharis amyite (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis crassiscapus (Thomson, 1878) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis nitetis (Walker, 1939) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis pentheus (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis polyzo (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis viridis (Nees, 1934) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Pediobius metallicus (Nees, 1834) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Cirrospilus vittatus Walker, 1838 Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Closterocerus trifasciatus Westwood, 1833 Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Necremnus leucarthros (Nees, 1834) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Pnigalio pectinicornis (Linnaeus, 1758) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Pnigalio soemius (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Glyphonathus flammeus Delucchi Pteromalidae: Miscogastrinae
Ichneumonoidea  
Chorebus armida (Nixon, 1945) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dacnusa areolaris (Nees, 1811) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dacnusa laevipectus Thomson, 1895 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dacnusa maculipes Thomson, 1895 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dapsilarthra sylvia (Haliday, 1839) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Exotela cyclogaster Förster, 1862 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Apodesmia curvata Fischer, 1957 Braconidae: Opiinae
Apodesmia similis (Szépligeti, 1898) Braconidae: Opiinae
Phaedrotoma curvata (Fischer, 1957) Braconidae: Opiinae
Phaedrotoma rex (Fischer, 1958) Braconidae: Opiinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
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