The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

N.B. Links to the latest version of 'Leafminers and plant galls of Europe' are being edited

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Phytomyza pastinacae Hendel, 1923
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]


Phytomyza pastinacae Hendel, 1923a. Dt. ent. Z. 1923(4): 388
Phytomyza pastinacae Hendel, 1923a; Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the World Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 160, 175, 176 (fig. 655), 177.


Leaf-mine: A conspicuous whitish linear mine. Pupation external.

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall. The larvae lie on their sides within the mine and use their pick-like mouthparts to feed on plant tissue.

The larva of Phytomyza pastinacae / spondylii is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

The puparium of Phytomyza pastinacae / spondylii is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.

Orchestes fagi larva,  dorsal
Phytomyza pastinacae / spondyli puparium
Image: © Willem Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa)

Comments: Spencer (1972b: 79) treated pastinacae Hendel as a junior synonym of spondylii Robineau-Desvoidy, although later he treated pastinacae as a distinct species (Spencer, 1990: 175). Both are recorded on Pastinaca and Heracleum in Europe and can only currently be distinguished by the male genitalia. All British records of both species require confirmation.

Host records given in Bladmineerders van Europa include both Phytomyza pastinacae and Phytomyza spondylii.

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Apiaceae        
? Heracleum       Robbins, 1991: 67
? Pastinaca sativa Wild Parsnip British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH

Hosts elsewhere:

Apiaceae        
Astrantia        
Angelica       Spencer, 1990: 160
Heracleum       Spencer, 1990: 160
? Heracleum mantegazzianum Giant Hogweed British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
? Heracleum sphondylium Hogweed British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
? Heracleum flavescens     Bladmineerders van Europa, as sphondylium subsp. sibiricum
? Levisticum officinale Lovage   Bladmineerders van Europa
? Pastinaca sativa Wild Parsnip British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - mines: May-October.

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: ? Warwickshire (Longford) (Robbins, 1991: 67); South-west Yorkshire (NBN Atlas).

Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

Distribution elsewhere: Europe (Spencer, 1990: 177) including Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, French mainland, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Portuguese mainland and The Netherlands (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

Also recorded in Canada (Alberta) and the U.S.A. (New Yorkshire) (Spencer, 1990: 175).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

? Heracleum flavescens, ? Heracleum mantegazzianum, ? Heracleum sphondylium, ? Levisticum officinale, ? Pastinaca sativa

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea   
Chrysocharis liriomyzae Delucchi, 1954 Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis viridis (Nees, 1934) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Glyphognathus convexus (Delucchi, 1953) Pteromalidae: Miscogastrinae
Ichneumonoidea  
Exotela cyclogaster Förster, 1862 Braconidae: Alysiinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
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