The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

N.B. Links to the latest version of 'Leafminers and plant galls of Europe' are being edited

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Phytomyza virgaureae Hering, 1826
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]


Phytomyza virgaureae Hering, 1926c. Z. Morph. ökol. Tiere 5(3): 458
Phytomyza virgaureae Hering, 1926c; Hendel, 1935. Fliegen palaearkt. Reg. 6(2): 495
Phytomyza umensis Rydén, 1949. Opusc. ent. 14: 87. [Synonymised by Spencer, 1976: 534]
Phytomyza virgaureae Hering, 1926c; Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 80, 115
Phytomyza virgaureae Hering, 1926c; Spencer, 1976. Fauna ent. Scand. 5(1): 524-5, fig. 918
Phytomyza virgaureae Hering, 1926c; Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the World Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 274, 283, 284 (fig. 1087).


Leaf-mine: A whitish linear mine, with frass predominantly in separate grains, rather than connected strips (Spencer, 1976: 525).

Initially narrow, gradually and weakly widening corridor of about 10-12 cm. The mine is upper-surface, pale green. Feeding lines not conspicuous. Frass in separate grains or short pearl chains. Pupation outside the mine, exit slit in lower epidermis (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

The larva is described by Dempewolf (2001: 198). See also de Meijere (1937a), Beiger (1960) and Griffiths (1976c). Anterior spiraculum with 11-12 papillae, posterior with c. 14 papillae in an irregular curve (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Black; posterior spiracles each with an ellipse of about 14 bulbs (Spencer, 1976: 525).

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Asteraceae        
Solidago virgaurea Goldenrod British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bland, 1972
Solidago virgaurea Goldenrod British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 115

Hosts elsewhere:

Asteraceae        
Bellis       Bladmineerders van Europa
Bellis perennis Daisy British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1990: 284
Bellis perennis Daisy British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Dempewolf, 2001: 198
Solidago virgaurea Goldenrod British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1976: 524
Solidago virgaurea Goldenrod British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1990: 284
Solidago virgaurea Goldenrod British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Solidago virgaurea Goldenrod British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1976: 274

Time of year - mines: August.

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Surrey (Holmbury St Mary) (Spencer, 1972b: 80).

Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden (Spencer, 1976: 524), Germany (Spencer, 1976: 582; Bladmineerders van Europa ; Dempewolf, 2001: 198), Austria, Corsica, Czech Republic, French mainland, Italian mainland, Lithuania, Poland and Switzerland (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Bellis perennis, Solidago virgaurea

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Ichneumonoidea  
Exotela cyclogaster Förster, 1862 Braconidae: Alysiinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
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