The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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SAGITTARIA. Arrowheads. [Alismataceae]


Four species of Sagittaria are recorded in Britain - Arrowhead (S. sagittifolia), Duck-potato (S. latifolia), Canadian Arrowhead (S. rigida), and Narrow-leaved Arrowhead (S. subulata).

Two British miners are recorded on Sagittaria.

Duck-potato - Sagittaria latifolia. Image: © Linda Pitkin
Duck-potato
Sagittaria latifolia




Key for the identification of the known mines of British
insects (Diptera and non-Diptera) recorded on Sagittaria


1a > Leaf-miner: Irregular mine, locally shallow, elsewhere much deeper, giving it a mottled appearance. In broadleaved plants the mine often begins as a blotch with stellate extensions, but sometimes as a very fine, shallow corridor. In grasses the mine often begins in the leaf sheath. The frass is very fine-grained, initially scattered, later in aggregates. The egg is deposited on the plant surface, and the empty egg shell remains visible. But the larvae are able to leave their mine and restart elsewhere, thus mines without an egg shell can be found as well. The larva also leaves the mine before pupation. Pupation takes place in a newly made, small, blotch mine without frass; this mine may be made in another plant (species) (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Mine of Hydrellia griseola on Glyceria fluitans. Image: © Willem Ellis (Source: Bladmineerders en plantengallen van Europa)
Mine of Hydrellia griseola on Glyceria fluitans
Image: © Willem Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa)

Polyphagpus. On ? Alisma, ? Damasonium, ? Sagittaria, ? Bellis, ? Rorippa, Tropaeolum, ? Lychnis, ? Stellaria, ? Carex, ? Cyperus, ? Scirpus, ? Hydrocharis, ? Stratiotes, ? Lamium, ? Lemna, ? Allium, Arrhenatherum, ? Polygonum, ? Potamogeton, ? Veronica, ? Typha in Britain.

On ? Alisma, ? Damasonium, ? Sagittaria, ? Bellis, ? Rorippa, Tropaeolum, Lychnis, ? Stellaria, Carex, ? Scirpus, Trifolium, ? Hydrocharis, Lamium, ? Lemna, Allium, Papaver, Agrostis, Alopecurus, Apera, Arrhenatherum, Avena, Avenula, Brachypodium, Briza, Bromus, Calamagrostis, Dactylis, Desmazeria, Digitaria, Echinochloa, Eleusine, Elymus, Festuca, Gaudinia, Glyceria, Holcus, Hordeum, Lagurus, Lolium, Panicum, Phalaris, Phleum, Phragmites, Poa, Secale, Setaria, Triticum, ? Polygonum, ? Potamogeton, Veronica, ? Typha and Verbena elsewhere. Widespread in England. Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland. Widespread in the Palaearctic region. Also recorded from Nearctic and Australasian Regions.

Hydrellia griseola (Fallén, 1813) [Diptera: Ephydridae].

1b > Leaf-miner: The mine starts with a broad corridor. Later a broad blotch, not determined by heavy veins. The mine is full depth and very transparent. The colour in the end is reddish-brown, making mined plants very conspicuous, even from a distance. Frass irregular. Often several larvae in a mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).

On Alisma plantago-aquatica, but not yet on Sagittaria, in Britain plus Luronium natans and Sagittaria sagittifolia elsewhere. Widespread in Britain and continental Europe. Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland.

Bagous alismatis (Marsham, 1802) [Coleoptera: Curculionidae].



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