The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Hydrellia griseola (Fallén, 1813)
[Diptera: Ephydridae]


Notiphila griseola Fallén, 1813. K. svenska. VetensAkad. Handl. (3) 1813: 250
Notiphila obscura Meigen, 1830. Syst. Beschr. 6: 67
Notiphila chrysostoma Meigen, 1830. Syst. Beschr. 6: 67.
Hydrellia griseola (Fallén, 1813).


Leaf-mine: Irregular mine, locally shallow, elsewhere much deeper, giving it a mottled appearance. In broadleaved plants the mine often begins as a blotch with stellate extensions, but sometimes as a very fine, shallow corridor. In grasses the mine often begins in the leaf sheath. The frass is very fine-grained, initially scattered, later in aggregates. The egg is deposited on the plant surface, and the empty egg shell remains visible. But the larvae are able to leave their mine and restart elsewhere, thus mines without an egg shell can be found as well. The larva also leaves the mine before pupation. Pupation takes place in a newly made, small, blotch mine without frass; this mine may be made in another plant (species) (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Mine of Hydrellia griseola on Glyceria fluitans. Image: Willem Ellis (Source: Bladmineerders van Europa)
Mine of Hydrellia griseola on Glyceria fluitans
Image: © Willem Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa)

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Whitish to dark grey. The puparium is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.

Comments: A polyphagous species recorded mainly from Poaceae and Cyperaceae, but also recorded from Liliaceae, Typhaceae, Asteraceae, Alismataceae, Brassicaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Hydrocharitaceae, Lamiaceae, Lemnaceae, Papaveraceae, Fabaceae, Polygonaceae, Scrophulariaceae and Verbenaceae. However, it may be that the true hosts are all grasses or sedges and that other records represent pupation sites!.

Irwin and Chandler in Chandler (1978) did not indicate whether their host records were British or Foreign and are therefore tentatively included under 'Hosts in Britain' and 'Hosts elsewhere', as are the records of Pitkin & Plant, which previously were assumed to be British.

Lychnis flos-cuculi is treated as Silene flos-cuculi (Ragged-Robin) by Stace (2010).

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Alismataceae        
? Alisma plantago-aquatica Water-plantain British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Irwin and Chandler in Chandler, 1978: 225
? Alisma plantago-aquatica Water-plantain British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Irwin and Chandler in Chandler, 1978: 225, as chrysostoma
? Damasonium       Irwin and Chandler in Chandler, 1978: 225
? Sagittaria       Irwin and Chandler in Chandler, 1978: 225
Amaryllidaceae        
? Allium cepa Onion   Irwin and Chandler in Chandler, 1978: 225
? Allium porrum Leek British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Irwin and Chandler in Chandler, 1978: 225
Asteraceae        
? Bellis       Irwin and Chandler in Chandler, 1978: 225
? Bellis perennis Daisy British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Pitkin & Plant
Brassicaceae        

? Nasturtium

officinale Watercress British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Irwin and Chandler in Chandler, 1978: 225
Tropaeolum majus Nasturtium   Pitkin & Plant
Caryophyllaceae        
? Lychnis flos-cuculi Ragged-Robin British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Irwin and Chandler in Chandler, 1978: 225
? Stellaria       Pitkin & Plant
? Stellaria media Common Chickweed British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Irwin and Chandler in Chandler, 1978: 225
Cyperaceae        
? Carex       Irwin and Chandler in Chandler, 1978: 225
? Cyperus       Irwin and Chandler in Chandler, 1978: 225
? Scirpus       Irwin and Chandler in Chandler, 1978: 225
Hydrocharitaceae        
? Hydrocharis morsus-ranae Frog-bit British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Irwin and Chandler in Chandler, 1978: 225
? Stratiotes       Pitkin & Plant
? Stratiotes aloides Water-soldier British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Irwin and Chandler in Chandler, 1978: 225
Lamiaceae        
? Lamium purpureum Red Dead-nettle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Irwin and Chandler in Chandler, 1978: 225
Lemnaceae        
? Lemna       Pitkin & Plant
? Lemna minor Common Duckweed British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Irwin and Chandler in Chandler, 1978: 225
Poaceae        
Arrhenatherum       Robbins, 1991: 140
Polygonaceae        
? Polygonum       Irwin and Chandler in Chandler, 1978: 225
Potomogetonaceae        
? Potamogeton       Pitkin & Plant
? Potamogeton lucens Shining Pondweed   Irwin and Chandler in Chandler, 1978: 225, as chrysostoma
Scrophulariaceae        
? Veronica       Irwin and Chandler in Chandler, 1978: 225
Typhaceae        
? Typha       Pitkin & Plant
? Typha latifolia Bulrush   Irwin and Chandler in Chandler, 1978: 225

Hosts elsewhere:

Alismataceae        
? Alisma plantago-aquatica Water-plantain British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Irwin and Chandler in Chandler, 1978: 225
? Alisma plantago-aquatica Water-plantain British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Irwin and Chandler in Chandler, 1978: 225, as chrysostoma
? Damasonium       Irwin and Chandler in Chandler, 1978: 225
? Sagittaria       Irwin and Chandler in Chandler, 1978: 225
Amaryllidaceae        
Allium       Bladmineerders van Europa
? Allium cepa Onion   Irwin and Chandler in Chandler, 1978: 225
? Allium porrum Leek British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Irwin and Chandler in Chandler, 1978: 225
Asteraceae        
? Bellis       Irwin and Chandler in Chandler, 1978: 225
Bellis perennis Daisy British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
? Bellis perennis Daisy British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Pitkin & Plant
Brassicaceae        

? Nasturtium

officinale Water-cress British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Irwin and Chandler in Chandler, 1978: 225
Tropaeolum majus Nasturtium   Pitkin & Plant
Caryophyllaceae        
? Lychnis flos-cuculi Ragged-Robin British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Irwin and Chandler in Chandler, 1978: 225
Lychnis       Hering, 1957
? Stellaria       Pitkin & Plant
? Stellaria media Common Chickweed British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Irwin and Chandler in Chandler, 1978: 225
Cyperaceae        
? Carex       Irwin and Chandler in Chandler, 1978: 225
Carex sylvatica Wood-sedge British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
? Cyperus       Irwin and Chandler in Chandler, 1978: 225
? Scirpus       Irwin and Chandler in Chandler, 1978: 225
Fabaceae        
Trifolium       Hering, 1957
Hydrocharitaceae        
? Hydrocharis morsus-ranae Frog-bit British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Irwin and Chandler in Chandler, 1978: 225
? Stratiotes       Pitkin & Plant
? Stratiotes aloides Water-soldier British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Irwin and Chandler in Chandler, 1978: 225
Lamiaceae        
Lamium       Hering, 1957
? Lamium purpureum Red Dead-nettle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Irwin and Chandler in Chandler, 1978: 225
Lemnaceae        
? Lemna       Pitkin & Plant
? Lemna minor Common Duckweed British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Irwin and Chandler in Chandler, 1978: 225
Papaveraceae        
Papaver       Bladmineerders van Europa
Poaceae        
Agrostis       Bladmineerders van Europa
Alopecurus geniculatus Marsh Foxtail British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Alopecurus pratensis Meadow Foxtail British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Apera spica-venti Loose Silky-bent   Bladmineerders van Europa
Arrhenatherum elatius False Oat-grass British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Avena fatua Wild-oat   Bladmineerders van Europa
Avenula       Bladmineerders van Europa
Brachypodium       Bladmineerders van Europa
Briza       Bladmineerders van Europa
Bromus       Bladmineerders van Europa
Calamagrostis       Bladmineerders van Europa
Dactylis       Hering, 1957
Desmazeria       Hering, 1957
Digitaria       Bladmineerders van Europa
Echinochloa crus-galli Cockspur British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Eleusine       Hering, 1957
Elymus       Bladmineerders van Europa
Festuca       Bladmineerders van Europa
Gaudinia       Bladmineerders van Europa
Glyceria notata Plicate Sweet-grass British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa, as Glyceria plicata
Holcus       Bladmineerders van Europa
Hordeum distichon Two-rowed Barley   Bladmineerders van Europa
Hordeum vulgare Six-rowed Barley   Bladmineerders van Europa
Lagurus ovatus Hair's-tail British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Lolium       Bladmineerders van Europa
Panicum miliaceum Common Millet   Bladmineerders van Europa
Phalaris arundinacea Reed Canary-grass British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Phalaris canariensis Canary-grass British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Phleum       Bladmineerders van Europa
Phragmites australis Common Reed British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Poa       Bladmineerders van Europa
Secale       Hering, 1957
Setaria       Bladmineerders van Europa
Triticum       Bladmineerders van Europa
Polygonaceae        
? Polygonum       Irwin and Chandler in Chandler, 1978: 225
Potomogetonaceae        
? Potamogeton       Pitkin & Plant
? Potamogeton lucens Shining Pondweed   Irwin and Chandler in Chandler, 1978: 225, as chrysostoma
Scrophulariaceae        
Veronica       Bladmineerders van Europa
? Veronica       Irwin and Chandler in Chandler, 1978: 225
Typhaceae        
? Typha       Pitkin & Plant
? Typha latifolia Bulrush   Irwin and Chandler in Chandler, 1978: 225
Verbenaceae        
Verbena hybrida     Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - mines: May, July and September (Hering, 1957).

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread in England including Warwickshire (Coombe, Kenilworth, Keresley and Tile Hill) (Robbins, 1991: 140); Anglesey, Breconshire, Caernarvonshire, Cambridgeshire, Carmarthenshire, Cumberland, Derbyshire, Dorset, Dumfrieshire, Durham, East Cornwall, East Norfolk, East Ross, East Suffolk, Easterness, Elgin, Glamorgan, Herefordshire, Huntingdonshire, Leicestershire, Merionethshire, Mid-west Yorkshire, Monmouthshire, Montgomeryshire, North Ebudes, North lincolnshire, North Somerset, North-east Yorkshire, Northamptonshire, Nottinghamshire, Pembrokeshire, Shropshire, South Essex, South Hampshire, South Lincolnshire, South Somerset, South-east Yorkshire, South-west Yorkshire, Stafford, West Cornwall, West Gloucestershire, West Suffolk and Westmorland (NBN Atlas).

Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Zatwarnicki, 2004 in Fauna Europaea).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in the Palaearctic regionincluding The Netherlands (Bladmineerders van Europa), Belgium (Gosseries, 1991d), Andorra, Austria, Azores, Balaearic Is., Bulgaria, Canary Is., Corsica, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Is., Finland, French mainland, Greek mainland, Hungary, Iceland, Italian mainland, Lithuania, Macedonia, Madeira, Malta, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Romania, Russia - North and Northwest, Sardinia, Sicily, Slovakia, Spanish mainland, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands and Yugoslavia (Zatwarnicki, 2004 in Fauna Europaea).

Also recorded from Nearctic and Australasian Regions (Zatwarnicki, 2004 in Fauna Europaea).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Alisma plantago-aquatica, Allium cepa, Allium porrum, Alopecurus geniculatus, Alopecurus pratensis, Apera spica-venti, Arrhenatherum elatius, Avena fatua, Bellis perennis, Carex sylvatica, Echinochloa crus-galli, Glyceria notata, Hordeum vulgare, Hydrocharis morsus-ranae, Lagurus ovatus, Lamium purpureum, Lemna minor, Lychnis flos-cuculi (= Silene flos-cuculi), Panicum miliaceum, Phalaris arundinacea, Phalaris canariensis, Phragmites australis, Potamogeton lucens, Nasturtium officinale, Stellaria media, Stratiotes aloides, Typha latifolia

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea   
Chrysocharis pallipes (Nees, 1834) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Pediobius epigonus (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Hemiptarsenus unguicellus (Zetterstedt, 1838) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Cyrtogaster clavicornis Walker, 1833 Pteromalidae: Pteromalinae
Ichneumonoidea  
Chaenusa conjungens (Nees, 1811) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Chaenusa nereidum (Haliday, 1839) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Chorebus uliginosus (Haliday, 1839) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dacnusa maculipes Thomson, 1895 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Ademon decrescens (Nees, 1811) Braconidae: Opiinae
Apodesmia irregularis Wesmael, 1835 Braconidae: Opiinae
Opius levis Wesmael, 1835 Braconidae: Opiinae
Phaedrotoma caesa (Haliday, 1837) Braconidae: Opiinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
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