gallery leads to blotch, with oval cut-out 5.5-7 mm long. There
are two or three brown specks at start of mine (trial slits made
by ovipositor) (British
combination of mine and cut-out is very distinctive (UKMoths).
a short corridor close to the leaf margin, suddenly widening into
a large blotch, that often overruns the corridor. Finally the larva
makes an oval excision of 5.5-7 mm long, and drops with it to the
ground. In this excision, that now functions as a case, the larva
continues living free. Before the onset of winter, pupation takes
place within the case. The female makes a number of test punctures,
that often can be seen as a curving row of 2-7 brown spots perpendular
to the initial corridor (Bladmineerders van Europa).
mine is also illustrated in (British
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
The larva is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths.
The genitalia are not illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection
Group (check for update).
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: July-August (British
of year - adults: The adults fly in the daytime during May,
preferring sunny weather (UKMoths).
in Great Britain & Ireland: Throughout most of England and
can be locally common in places (UKMoths);
Bedfordshire, Cambridgeshire, East Suffolk, Glamorganshire, Herefordshire,
North Essex, North Hampshire, North Somerset, Northamptonshire,
South Wiltshire, South-west Yorkshire, Staffordshire, Surrey, Warwickshire,
West Gloucestershire, West Suffolk and Worcestershire (NBN
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belgium, Croatia, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, French
mainland, Germany, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Norwegian mainland,
Poland, Romania, Russia - East, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, The
Netherlands and Ukraine (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Atlas links to known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: Currently unknown.