Leaf-miner: The larvae mine the leaves at first, then create small feeding windows
full depth, hook-like corridor, usually in a vein axil, with a proportionally
large larval chamber. The remainder of the mine almost entirely
stuffed with frass. At the start if the mine an iridescent egg shell.
The larvae soon leave their mine and start living free on the leaf
(Bladmineerders van Europa).
mine is also illustrated in British
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
The larva is illustrated in UKMoths
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The pupa and white ribbed cocoon are illustrated in British
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths
(by Rob Edmunds) and the Encyclopedia of Life. The male
genitalia are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group.
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: July - August (British
of year - adults: June, and sometimes again in August in the
in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread in England including
Hampshire (Fleet) (British
leafminers), Lancaster (Greater Manchester, Chorlton) and Norfolk
(Holkham Park) (UKMoths);
Bedfordshire (VC30), Breconshire (VC42), Cambridgeshire (VC29), Derbyshire (VC57), East Norfolk (VC27),
East Suffolk (VC25), Glamorganshire (VC41), Herefordshire (VC36), Middlesex (VC21), North Essex (VC19),
North Somerset (VC6), Northamptonshire (VC32), Shropshire (VC40), South Devon (VC3), South Essex (VC18), South Hampshire (VC11), South Lancashire (VC59), South Wiltshire (VC8), Staffordshire (VC39),
Surrey (VC17), West Gloucestershire (VC34), West Kent (VC16), West Norfolk (VC28), West Suffolk (VC26) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
NBN Grid Map:
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech
Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, Finland, French mainland, Hungary,
Italian mainland, Kaliningrad Region, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia,
Norwegian mainland, Poland, Romania, Russia - Central and Northwest,
Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands, Ukraine and Yugoslavia
(Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
x euchlora, Tilia
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: