as a contorted frass-filled gallery, between the midrib and vein.
Later the gallery, with broken black frass, follows a vein before
turning away. The final mine is 11-15 mm long. (British
on the leaf underside, generally in the axil of the midrib and a
thick lateral vein. The very first part of the mine is so strongly
contorted that sometimes a tiny secondary blotch originates, filled
with black frass. Then follows a straight corridor of maximally
15 mm, almost completely filled with frass, mostly closely following
a vein. Just before the larva is about to leave the mine (through
an exit hole in the leaf underside) it turns away from the vein
(Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
Dull, transparent yellowish; older larvae live free at the leaf
underside, eating out windows (Bladmineerders van Europa).
larva is also illustrated in British
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
Dark blackish brown, in a grey-black, ribbed cocoon (Langmaid, Porter
and Collins, 2007) (Bladmineerders van Europa).
The adult is not illustrated in UKMoths (check for update). The genitalia are not illustrated by the Lepidoptera
Dissection Group (check for update).
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: June, October (British
of year - adults: Currently unknown.
in Great Britain & Ireland: Discovered in 2006 in Surrey
leafminers). See also British
leafminers distribution map.
NBN Grid Map:
elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including The Netherlands,
Germany (Bladmineerders van Europa), Austria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Italian mainland,
Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Russia - Central and South, Sardinia,
? Sicily, Slovakia and Yugoslavia (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: