The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

N.B. Links to the latest version of 'Leafminers and plant galls of Europe' are being edited

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Callisto denticulella (Thunberg, 1794)
[Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae]

Garden Apple Slender


Tinea denticulella Thunberg, 1794. Insecta Suecia: ?.
Gracillaria guttea
Haworth, 1828. Lep. Brit.: 531.
Callisto denticulella
(Thunberg, 1794).


Leaf-miner: The young larvae mine the leaves, causing a gallery followed by a semi-translucent blotch on the upper surface of the leaf. It then vacates this and folds the edge of a leaf down to feed within, usually twice, before pupating externally among detritus (UKMoths).

The mine begins as an inconspicuous epidermal corridor, mainly recognisable by its reddish brown frass line. In the next instar a blotch is formed. The mine not starting over a vein, rather lies between two veins. The colour initially is silvery, but soon the mine gets a characteristic onrange-brown tinge. Usually, but by no means invariably, the mine is upper-surface; lower-surface mines keep their original silvery colour. Silk is deposited witihin the mine, but in little quantities and the mine contracts only lightly. The mine hardly contains any frass. After some time the larva leaves the mine and then lives free in a leaf margin that has been folded downwards and fixed with silk. Two such folds are usually made, and eaten out to the upper epidermis (Bladmineerders van Europa).

The leaf-mine is also illustrated in British leafminers.

Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).

Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).

See Patocka (2001b), Patocka and Turcani (2005a) (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Adult: The adult is illustrated in UKMoths by Damian Money. The male genitalia, but not the female genitalia (check for update), are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group.

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Rosaceae        
Malus       British leafminers
Malus       Pitkin & Plant
Malus       UKMoths
Malus sylvestris Crab Apple British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Emmet, Watkinson and Wilson, 1985a

Hosts elsewhere:

Rosaceae        
Cotoneaster       Bladmineerders van Europa
Crataegus       Bladmineerders van Europa
Malus baccata Siberian Crab   Bladmineerders van Europa
Malus floribunda Japanese Crab British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Malus fusca     Bladmineerders van Europa
Malus pumila Apple British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Malus pumila Apple British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al.

Bladmineerders van Europa, as Malus domestica

Malus ringo     Bladmineerders van Europa
Malus royalty     Bladmineerders van Europa
Malus x astracanica     Belgian Lepidoptera
Malus x purpurea Purple Crab British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Malus sylvestris Crab Apple British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Pyrus communis Pear Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - larvae: July-August (British leafminers).

Time of year - adults: May and June (UKMoths).

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland:, Callisto denticulella frequents orchards and gardens where apple trees are present (UKMoths). Distributed throughout much of the British Isles, including Cleveland (Marske) (UKMoths); Bedfordshire, Brecon, Caernarvonshire, Cambridgeshire, Cheshire, Cumberland, Denbighshire, Derbyshire, Dorset, Dumfrieshire, Dunbarton, Durham, East Cornwall, East Kent, East Norfolk, East Suffolk, Flintshire, Glamorgan, Hertfordshire, Huntingdonshire, Isle of Wight, Kirkudbrightshire, Lanarkshire, Merionethshire, Middlesex, Montgomeryshire, North Essex, North Hampshire, North Somerset, Shropshire, South Wiltshire, Stafford, West Cornwall, West Gloucestershire, West Kent, West Norfolk, West Suffolk, Westmorland and Worcestershire (NBN Atlas); and the Channel Is. (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).

See also British leafminers distribution map.

Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea). See also Ireland's NBDC interactive map.

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, Finland, French mainland, Germany, Hungary, Italian mainland, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Republic of Moldova, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Romania, Russia - Central, East, Northwest and South, Slovakia, Spanish mainland, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands and Ukraine (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Malus baccata, Malus pumila, Malus floribunda, Malus pumila, Malus x purpurea, Malus sylvestris, Pyrus communis

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea  
Chrysocharis nephereus (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Cirrospilus lyncus Walker, 1841 Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Pteromalus semotus (Walker, 1834) Pteromalidae: Pteromalinae
Ichneumonoidea  
Glyptapanteles lateralis (Haliday, 1834) Braconidae: Microgastrinae
Apanteles xanthostigma (Haliday, 1834) Braconidae: Microgastrinae
Pholetesor circumscriptus (Nees, 1834) Braconidae: Microgastrinae
Pholetesor phaetusa (Nixon, 1973) Braconidae: Microgastrinae
Diadegma lithocolletis Horstmann, 1969 Ichneumonidae: Campopleginae
Diadegma melanium (Thomson, 1887) Ichneumonidae: Campopleginae
Enytus appositor (Aubert, 1970) Ichneumonidae: Campopleginae
Gelis areator (Panzer, 1804) Ichneumonidae: Cryptinae
Scambus inanis (Schrank, 1802) Ichneumonidae: Pimplinae
Scambus calobatus (Gravenhorst, 1829) Ichneumonidae: Pimplinae


External links: Search the internet:

Belgian Lepidoptera
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
UKMoths

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Last updated 01-Jul-2017  Brian Pitkin Top of page