Leaf-miner: Initially in short gallery becoming a brownish blotch near the leaf
margin. Later in two or three Parornix-like folds at the
edge of the leaf (British
(up to 10 mm long), lower-surface blotch near the leaf margin, with
a brownish lower epidermis. The mine in fact is a tentiform mine,
but so little silk is produced that the blotch hardly contracts
at all. The mine is preceded by a quite short corridor, that is
overrun by the later blotch. The older larva leaves its mine and
starts feeding under a flap of the leaf margin that is folded down
and fixed with silk on the blade underside. Two or three such folds
are made, not necessarily on the same leaf. The fact that no leaf
rolls are made, but parts of the leaf are folded down rather makes
one think of the work of a Parornix (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
Whitish with pale brown head (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
Under a turned over leaf edge (British
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths. The male
genitalia, but not the female genitalia (check for update), are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group.
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: July - August (British
of year - adults: Currently unknown.
in Great Britain & Ireland: Britain including Hampshire
(Fleet, Portsmouth and Emsworth) (British
leafminers); Bedfordshire (VC30), East Suffolk (VC25), Herefordshire (VC36), South Hampshire (VC11), Surrey (VC17), West Kent (VC16) and West Suffolk (VC26) (NBN
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea).
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belgium, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia,
Finland, French mainland, Germany, Hungary, Italian mainland, Latvia,
Lithuania, Luxembourg, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Portuguese mainland,
Romania, Russia - Central, Northwest and South, Sardinia, Slovakia,
Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands and Ukraine (Karsholt and
van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: