a lower epidermal gallery which leads to a blotch at the leaf-edge.
Subsequently creates two or three cones by folding the edge or tip
of a leaf downwards (British
mine begins with an unusually long lower-surface epidermal corridor
that often follows the midrib for some distance, but finally turns
towards the leaf margin, where a small blotch is made of up to 1
cm in diameter. The blotch initially is fully epidermal, but later
the larva starts consuming parenchyma, silk is deposited, and the
blotch begins to develop into a somewhat contracted tentiform mine.
In the end the mine is vacated and the larva continues living freely
under a leaf fold that has been fixed with silk, or in a leaf tip
that has been turned into a cone. Pupation in a shiny cocoon at
the underside of the leaf (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
The larva is illustrated in UKMoths and Bladmineerders van Europa.
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
Beneath a silken membrane on underside of leaf (British
leafminers). The pupa lies in a vitreous cocoon, in an under-surface fold of the leaf, that is covered with a parchment-like membrane. See Patočka and Zach (1995a) (Bladmineerders van Europa.
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths and the Encyclopedia
of Life. The male and female
genitalia are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group.
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: July-September (British
of year - adults: Late June and July, and again from September
in Great Britain & Ireland: Fairly common throughout Britain
including Lancaster (Littleborough) (UKMoths);
Anglesey, Bedfordshire, Breconshire, Cambridgeshire, Carmarthenshire,
Cumberland, Denbighshire, Derbyshire, East Cornwall, East Norfolk,
East Ross, East Suffolk, Easterness, Glamorganshire, Herefordshire, Hertfordshire,
Huntingdonshire, Kincardineshire, Merionethshire, Middlesex, Monmouthshire,
North Ebudes, North Essex, North Somerset, North Wiltshire, Pembrokeshire,
Radnorshire, Shropshire, South Aberdeenshire, South Devon, South Hampshire,
South Lancashire, South Wiltshire, South-west Yorkshire, Staffordshire,
Surrey, Warwickshire, West Cornwall, West Gloucestershire, West Kent, West Lancashire, West Norfolk, West Suffolk, Westmorland and
the Channel Is. (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea).
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
recorded in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea). See also Ireland's NBDC interactive map.
elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Corsica, Croatia, Czech Republic,
Danish mainland, Estonia, Finland, French mainland, Germany, Hungary,
Italian mainland, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg,
Macedonia, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Portuguese mainland, Romania,
Russia - Central, East, North, Northwest and South, Sardinia, Slovakia,
Spanish mainland, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands and Ukraine
(Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Atlas links to known host species:
x canescens, Populus
x stipularis, Salix
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:
|Dimmockia brevicornis (Erdös, 1954)
|Sympiesis dolichogaster Ashmead, 1888
|Pteromalus semotus (Walker, 1834)
|Apanteles xanthostigma (Haliday, 1834)
|Anomalon variegatus (Jurine, 1807)
|Diadegma duplicatum Horstmann, 1980
|Diadegma stigmatellae Horstmann, 1980
|Hyposoter virginalis (Gravenhorst, 1829)
|Diaglyptidea conformis (Gmelin, 1790)
|Campodorus variegatus (Jurine 1807)
|Itoplectis alternans (Gravenhorst, 1829)
|Scambus inanis (Schrank, 1802)